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  • Author or Editor: Y. Liu x
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Genetic relationships among 42 grape accession of at least 15 species were estimated and compared using RAPD and isozyme techniques. These accessions were either hybrids or wild collections of the Asiatic species, the American species, the European grape (V. vinifera), and muscadine grape (V. rotundifolia). A total of 196 RAPD fragments were generated from twenty 10-mer primers. The pairwise similarities among the accession ranged from 0.46 to 0.94. A dendrogram was generated based on the RAPD similarity coefficients. Species/accessions were basically grouped together in accordance with their geographic origins. The similarities and dendrogram resulted from the RAPD analysis were consistent with the ones generated from the isozyme data, and also consistent with the known taxonomic information. This result suggest that the RAPD method, like isozyme, is an useful tool for studying grape genetic relationship/diversity and origination.

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Resistance to grape anthracnose [Elsinoë ampelina (de Bary) Shear] was evaluated in 13 known Vitis species and five taxonomically undescribed grapes native to China. One hundred and eight clones of Chinese Vitis species were tested under field conditions between 1990 and 1992. Berry infection did not occur in these species. Leaves displayed strong resistance to anthracnose, although intraspecific variations were observed. There was no relationship between anthracnose resistance and geographical origin of the species. Results from this study indicate that oriental grape species are useful for disease-resistance breeding.

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Cryopreservation of pollen from two ginseng species —Panax ginseng L. and P. quinquefolium L.—was studied. Freezing anthers that served as pollen carriers to –40C before liquid N storage affected pollen viability little after liquid N storage. Anther moisture content affected pollen viability significantly when stored in liquid N. The ideal anther moisture content to carry pollen for liquid N storage was 32% to 26% for P. ginseng and 27% to 17% for P. quinquefolium. Viability of pollen from P. quinquefolium anthers with 25.3% moisture content changed little after 11 months of liquid N storage.

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Pectin is a class of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulose network. Pectin has various health benefits, such as decreasing serum cholesterol levels, alleviating diabetes mellitus, and preventing cancer. It has been reported that the cancer prevention effect is closely related to the structure of pectin (galactose-rich, molecular weight <10,000, and methylation degree 50% to 70%). This study was conducted to investigate the variation of grapefruit pectin content due to harvest time. `Rio Red' grapefruit on sour orange rootstock grown at Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville Citrus Center were harvested every 2 months and analyzed for pectin content, galacturonic acid concentration, methylation degree, and neutral sugar composition. Results showed that lamella contains more pectin than flavedo and albedo. In the lamella, the edible section, the uronic acid content ranged from 85% to 90% from August to April the following year. Methylation degree increased from August (31.89%) to April (46.99%). Total neutral sugar content of lamella pectin decreased from 110.54 to 61.77% mg·g -1. Galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose are the major sugar contents of pectin (85%), and glucose content increased with the season from 3.14 to 13.34 mg·g-1. Molecular weight of pectin was also determined.

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Abstract

Firmness loss, increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations, and increase in internal ethylene concentrations were greatest in airstored fruit of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and lowest in controlled-atmosphere (CA)-stored fruit receiving a “rapid CA” or a “prestorage high carbon dioxide” storage procedure. Changes in apples kept in “slow CA” were intermediate. The accumulation of ACC in fruit was related closely to the subsequent flesh softening and increase in internal C2H4 concentration, and these processes were suppressed to different degrees in CA-stored fruit, depending on the storage procedures.

Open Access

The grape is an important horticultural crop that is grown worldwide. Breeding a new grape cultivar by conventional means normally will take several generations of backcross, at least 15 years. The efficiency and speed of selection can be accelerated if genetic markers are available for early screening. This project is designed to generate RAPD markers linked to viticulturally important traits, including seedlessness and pistillate genes. A F1 population with 64 progenies of V. vinifera was used for the RAPD analysis. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) method was used for RAPD primer screening. Three-hundred primers were screened between the two pairs of pooled DNA samples, seeded and seedlessness, pistillate and perfect flowers. At least 10 primers produced one polymorphism each between the pools. Further analysis revealed that one of these RAPDs cosegregated tightly with the seedlessness trait, while the others either had loose linkage or no linkage to the traits. To make the RAPD marker useful for breeding selection, an attempt was made to convert it into SCAR marker. The results demonstrated that the RAPD marker may be useful for grape breeding and interpreting inheritance of a particular trait in grapes.

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Abstract

Seed germination was 90–95% for Kentucky coffeetree [Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) C. Koch] after concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 120 to 150 minutes; 97–98% for honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos va. inermis L.) following 60, 90, or 120 minutes concentrated sulfuric acid scarification; and was 67–72% for redbud (Cercis canadensis L.) after 30, 60, or 90 minutes of concentrated sulfuric acid scarification followed by a 60-day stratification period. Scanning electron micrographs of acid-scarified Kentucky coffeetree, honeylocust, and redbud seed indicated that lumens of the macrosclereid cells on the seed surface were exposed after acid treatment, permitting imbibition of water. Boiling water treatment ruptured the macrosclerid layer, while seed treated with liquid N2 had fissures that did not appear to penetrate the macrosclereid layer.

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Abstract

Prior to 25 Oct., about 4-6 weeks (1983) or 3-5 weeks (1984) after the normal commercial harvest period, 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC), ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE), and internal ethylene concentration (IEC) in ‘Golden Delicious’ (Malus domestica Borkh.) apples attached to the tree were low. Thereafter, they began to increase rapidly. The increase in both ACC and IEC was earlier in detached preclimacteric fruit than in fruit attached to the tree. The increase of EFE coincided with that of IEC in detached fruit kept at 20°C. Attached fruit subsequently attained a higher level of ACC but a lower level of IEC as compared to the detached fruit. The results suggest that inhibitor(s) supplied from the tree not only delayed the accumulation of ACC in the fruit but also greatly inhibited its subsequent conversion to ethylene. Once the ripening process is initiated, the development of EFE precedes the development of ACC synthesis in both attached and detached fruit. Since attached fruit showed a steady loss of flesh firmness, green skin color, and starch, these changes did not appear to be related directly to the levels of ACC and internal ethylene. Detached fruit stored at 0° accumulated ACC and increased IEC slightly earlier than those stored at 20°. The magnitudes of these increases during subsequent storage at 0° were, however, smaller than those at 20°.

Open Access

Flavorcrest, Camden. C. L. Wilson, Loring, Elberta, Summergold and Harken peach varieties were inoculated and naturally infected with Monilinia fructicolo after ultraviolet light irradiation (W-C 254nm) showed increased resistance to brown rot disease. Although dosages ranged from 0 to 20 KJ/m2. 7.5 KJ/m2 was considered the most effective for the peach varieties tested. Pretreatment of peaches by field spraying or dipping into a benomyl fungicide showed no significant differences between non-treated and UV-C treated peaches. However. a combination of a low dose of benomyl (.15g/L) 3 days following UV-C treatment showed a synergistic effect on brown rot reduction when compared to Peaches treated with UV-C alone and a greater reduction of brow rot than benomyl control.

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The application of low hormetic low-dose ultraviolet light (WV-C, 254 nm) on fruits and vegetables to stimulate beneficial responses is a new method for controlling storage rots and extending the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. The present study was aimed at treating tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) with different UV-C dosages (1.3 to 40 KJ/m2) to induce resistance to black mold (Alternaria alternata), gray mold (Boytris cinerea), and Rhizopus soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer). Thesediseases were effectively reduced when tomatoes were artificially inoculated following UV-C irradiation UV-C treated tomatoes were firmer in texture and less red in color than the control tomatoes, indicating a delay in ripening. Slower ripening and resistsace to storage rots of tomatoes are probably related. The positive effect of UVC on tomatoes decreased as treatments were performed at stages of increased ripeness.

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