Visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for rapid, nondestructive fruit quality detection. This technology has been widely applied for quality detection of small thin-peel fruit, although less so for large thick-peel fruit because of the low signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral signal, resulting in a reduction of accuracy. More modeling work should be focused on solving this problem. This research explored a method of spectroscopy for the total soluble solid (TSS) content and acidity detection of ‘Shatian’ pomelo, which are two major parameters of fruit internal flavor. VIS/NIR spectral signal detection of 100 pomelo samples during storage was performed. Detection based on raw data, signal jitter, and scattered light noise removal, feature extraction, and deep learning were performed and combined with modeling detection to achieve an accurate step-by-step detection. Our results showed that 600 W is the optimal light intensity for detecting the internal flavor of pomelo. The TSS content of pomelo is optimally detected using Savitzky-Golay (SG) + multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) + genetic algorithm (GA) + principal component analysis (PCA) + convolutional neural network (CNN) + partial least squares regression (PLSR); however, acidity of pomelo is optimally detected using SG + MSC + GA + PLSR. With the optimal detection method, the coefficient of determination and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the validation set for TSS detection are 0.72 and 0.49, respectively; and for acidity detection are 0.55 and 0.10, respectively. Even though the accuracy is not high, the data are still acceptable and helpful in nondestructive quality grading of large quantities postharvest fruit. Therefore, our results demonstrated that VIS/NIR was feasible for detecting the TSS content and acidity of postharvest pomelo, and for providing a possible method for the nondestructive internal quality detection of other large thick-peel fruit.
Sai Xu, Huazhong Lu, Xu Wang, Christopher M. Ference, Xin Liang, and Guangjun Qiu
Xin Zhao, Qianqian Dong, Shubang Ni, Xiyong He, Hai Yue, Liang Tao, Yanli Nie, Caixian Tang, Fusuo Zhang, and Jianbo Shen
Macadamia (Macadamia spp.) has been widely planted in southern China and has been now developed into an important industry. China has the largest area of macadamia plantation in the world but provides only 3% production of the world. Current farming systems have a fertilizer surplus of about 73 g of nitrogen (N), 103 g of phosphorus (P), and 24 g of potassium (K) per macadamia plant per year in southern China. Optimizing fertilization recommended for macadamia improves production by about 5 kg per plant. Macadamia develops cluster roots (i.e., proteoid roots) in a P-starvation environment. Overuse of P fertilizers restrains the development of cluster roots as well as rhizosphere processes, thus decreasing the P-use efficiency. Excessive fertilization, especially P fertilization, is one of the major limiting factors in China macadamia production. This study is the first to analyze current management practices and then discuss approaches of improving nutrient management based on the specific root biology of macadamia. For a sustainable macadamia industry, it is imperative to develop appropriate nutrient management by integrating root-zone soil nutrient supply, fertilizer application, and rhizosphere processes.
Young-Hwan Shin, Rui Yang, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Qiu-Yue Fu, Jian-Liang Lu, Jian-Hui Ye, Kai-Rong Wang, Shi-Cheng Ma, Xin-Qiang Zheng, and Yue-Rong Liang
Albino tea plants are mutants that grow albino young leaves owing to lack of chlorophylls under certain environmental conditions. There are two types of albino tea plants grown in production, i.e., light- and temperature-sensitive albino tea cultivars. The former grows albino leaves in yellow color under intensive sunlight conditions and the later grows albino leaves with white mesophyll and greenish vein as the environmental temperature is below 20 °C. Both albino teas attract great attention because of their high levels of amino acids and the “umami” taste. There have been many studies focusing on the temperature-sensitive albino tea plants, whereas little attention has been given to the light-sensitive albino tea cultivars. The characteristics of the albino tea cultivars and the mechanism underlying them were reviewed in the present article based on the published literatures, including chemical compositions, morphological characteristics, and molecular genetic mechanism.