Much of semiarid western North America is salt affected, and using turfgrasses in salty areas can be challenging. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is relatively susceptible to salt stress, showing reduced growth, osmotic and ionic stress, and eventual death at moderate or high salt concentrations. Considerable variation exists for salt tolerance among kentucky bluegrass germplasm, but gaining consistency among studies and entries has been a challenge. In this study, two novel kentucky bluegrass accessions recently reported as salt tolerant (PI 371768 and PI 440603) and two cultivars commonly used as references (Baron and Midnight) were compared for their turf quality (TQ), stomatal conductance (g S), leaf water potential (ψLEAF), electrolyte leakage (EL), and accumulation of inorganic ions under salt stress. TQ, ψLEAF, and EL were highly correlated with each other while only moderately correlated with g S. The tolerant accessions showed higher ψLEAF and lower EL than the cultivars Midnight and Baron at increasing salt concentrations and over 28 days of treatment. The accumulation of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) in the leaves was highly correlated and did not vary significantly among the four entries. Genes involved in ion transport across membranes, and in antioxidant activities, were significantly induced on salt stress in the tolerant accessions relative to the susceptible. These data indicate the ability of tolerant accessions to ameliorate oxidative stress and prevent EL, and confirmed the tolerance of germplasm previously reported on while indicating mechanisms by which they tolerate the salt stress.
B. Shaun Bushman, Lijun Wang, Xin Dai, Alpana Joshi, Joseph G. Robins and Paul G. Johnson
Yuxiang Wang, Liqin Li, Youping Sun and Xin Dai
Spirea (Spiraea sp.) plants are commonly used in landscapes in Utah and the intermountain western United States. The relative salt tolerance of seven japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) cultivars (Galen, Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, SMNSJMFP, Tracy, and Yan) were evaluated in a greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions with an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 once per week for 8 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment, all japanese spirea cultivars irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 still exhibited good or excellent visual quality, with all plants having visual scores of 4 or 5 (0 = dead, 1 = severe foliar salt damage, 2 = moderate foliar salt damage, 3 = slight foliar salt damage, 4 = minimal foliar salt damage, 5 = excellent), except for Tracy and Yan, with only 29% and 64%, respectively, of plants with visual scores less than 3. When irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1, both ‘Tracy’ and ‘Yan’ plants died, and 75% of ‘NCSX2’ plants died. ‘Minspi’ showed severe foliar salt damage, with 32% of plants having a visual score of 1; 25% of plants died. ‘Galen’ and ‘NCSX1’ had slight-to-moderate foliar salt damage, with 25% and 21%, respectively, of plants with visual scores of 2 or less. However, 64% of ‘SMNSJMFP’ plants had good or excellent visual quality, with visual scores more than 4. Saline irrigation water with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 decreased the shoot dry weight of ‘Galen’, ‘Minspi’, ‘SMNSJMFP’, and ‘Yan’ by 27%, 22%, 28%, and 35%, respectively, compared with that of the control. All japanese spirea cultivars had 35% to 56% lower shoot dry weight than the control when they were irrigated with saline irrigation water with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1. The japanese spirea were moderately sensitive to the salinity levels in this experiment. ‘Galen’ and ‘SMNSJMFP’ japanese spirea exhibited less foliar salt damage and reductions in shoot dry weight and were relatively more tolerant to the increased salinity levels tested in this study than the remaining five cultivars (Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, Tracy, and Yan).