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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Qiying Nie, and Junbin Li

‘Jincuilei’ is a mutant selected from Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. It produces abundant flowers that never open with a chlorogenic acid (CGA) content up to 6.0%. Propagation through rooting or grafting has only a 30% survival rate. This study was undertaken to establish an efficient protocol for rapidly regenerating this mutant. Leaf explants were inoculated on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid (2,4-D). The optimal combination for callus induction was 4.4 μm BA with 2.26 μm 2,4-D, which resulted in 86.7% of leaf explants producing calluses in 4 weeks. Calluses produced from this optimal medium were cultured on B5 medium containing different concentrations of kinetin (KT) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best formulation for shoot induction was B5 medium containing 0.9 μm KT and 5.4 μm NAA in which 73.4% of cultured calluses produced shoots in 8 weeks, and shoot numbers ranged from three to six per callus piece (1 cm3). Adventitious shoots were cut and rooted in half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 14.8 μm 3-indolebutyric acid. Roots initiated 10 d after culture, and rooting percentages ranged from 98% to 100%. Plantlets grown in a container substrate in a shaded greenhouse had over a 95% survival rate. During the last 6 years, over four million plantlets were regenerated using this established procedure, and there was no somaclonal variation. Fresh and dry weights of 1000 flowers, CGA contents, and dry flower yields of the regenerated plants were not significantly different from those of the stock ‘Jincuilei’ propagated by cutting, indicating that plants regenerated from this established procedure were stable. This established in vitro culture method has led to rapid commercial production of this medicinal plant on more than 1500 ha of production field.

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Xiaoming Wang, Changzhu Li, Shijun Tang, and Wei Tang

Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) is a popular nut in Chinese and International market. However, storage of chestnut is difficult. In this study, the relationships of respiration rate, metabolic pathway, key enzymatic activities, metabolites, and membrane peroxidation with chestnut rotting during storage at room temperature (25 °C) and low temperature (0–3 °C) were investigated. The results show that the respiration rate of chestnut gradually decreases during storage at room temperature. Under the lower temperature, the respiration rate reduced 67.53% within 1 day, then gradually increased. Compared with room temperature, the lower temperature also significantly inhibited glycolysis, maintained higher level of tricarboxylic acid cycling, and reduced the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol and lactate. In addition, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activities were inhibited while superoxide dismutase activities were high under the lower temperature, which resulted in the reduction of membrane peroxidation. Subsequently, the chestnut rotting rate was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the primary reason for chestnut rotting is the reduction of proper physiologic function and then bacteria and pathogen infection. Chestnut rotting rate during storage can be significantly reduced through an appropriate environment and new techniques and chemicals.

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Huijie Zeng, Zhongquan Qiao, Yongxin Li, Neng Cai, and Xiangying Wang

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Xiaoming Wang, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, Neng Cai, Zhongquan Qiao, Xiangying Wang, and Jianjun Chen

Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. is a popular flowering shrub adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Efficient methods for micropropagation of this species have not been well developed. The present study established a protocol for in vitro shoot culture of W. florida ‘Tango’ after a systematic evaluation of different culture media, cytokinins, and auxins on axillary shoot induction. Single-node stems were cultured on Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) medium for initial production of axillary shoots. The shoots were used as explants and cultured on DKW medium supplemented with 8.88 μm 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.27 μm naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), resulting in the production of more than six axillary shoots per explant. The axillary shoots could either be used as explants for additional shoot production or be cultured on ½ DKW medium supplemented with 0.25 μm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for rooting. Plantlets were transplanted into a substrate with 99% survival rate in a shaded greenhouse. This established method could be used for rapid propagation of W. florida to speed the introduction of new hybrids or cultivars for commercial production.

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Xiaoming Wang, Jianjun Chen, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, Neng Cai, and Zhongquan Qiao

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Huijie Zeng, Yun Li, Jianjun Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Zhongquan Qiao, Yongxin Li, Neng Cai, and Sisi Liu

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Jianjun Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Neng Cai, Yongxin Li, Huijie Zeng, and Zhongquan Qiao

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Juan Chen, Nianhe Xia, Xiaoming Wang, Richard C. Beeson Jr., and Jianjun Chen

Ploidy levels and genome sizes have significant implications in plant evolution and crop improvement. Species of Lonicera L. have long been cultivated as medicinal, ornamental crops, or both. However, chromosome numbers, karyotypes, and DNA contents have only been documented in a few species, of which some controversies regarding basic chromosome numbers and karyotypes remain. This study analyzed the chromosome numbers and karyomorphology of 11 cultivars across four species and also the DNA content of 10 cultivars representing six species of Lonicera. Among them, the chromosome numbers of nine cultivars are reported for the first time. Results showed that the basic chromosome number of x = 9 was constant, and chromosome numbers of 2n = 18, 27, 36, or 54 were observed, suggesting that polyploidy exists in the genus. Five cultivars are diploid with 2n = 18; one cultivar is triploid, four are tetraploid, and one is hexaploid. The karyotypes of all studied cultivars are 3B or 3A, except Lonicera sempervirens ‘Crimson Cascade’ that is 2B based on the Stebbins’ asymmetry classification of karyotypes. The asymmetry index (A1) values vary from 0.47 to 0.60. The chromosome lengths range from 0.77 to 4.09 μm. Total karyotype lengths differ from 33.55 to 78.71 μm. The 1C-value of 10 cultivars varies 3-fold, ranging from 1.158 to 3.664 pg. Information gathered from this study could be valuable for improving breeding efficiency in the development of new cultivars of Lonicera with enhanced medicinal, ornamental value, or both.

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Min Wang, Wenrui Liu, Biao Jiang, Qingwu Peng, Xiaoming He, Zhaojun Liang, and Yu’e Lin

Heat stress (HS) negatively influences plant development and growth, especially production and quality. Cucumber is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae that is often exposed to high temperatures during summer and protected cultivation. In this study, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing of two pools, one heat-tolerant and one heat-sensitive, of the F2 population derived from L-9 (heat-resistant) and A-16 (heat-sensitive). The genetic analysis showed that the heat resistance of L-9 cucumber seedlings was controlled by a single recessive gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) technology, the crucial gene related to HS was preliminarily mapped to a 1.08-Mb region on chromosome 1. To fine-map the locus, Indel markers were designed according to the genomic sequence. Finally, the gene was narrowed to a 550-kb region flanked by two Indel markers, namely Indel-H90 and Indel-H224, that contained 56 candidate genes. Re-sequencing results indicated that 10 candidate genes among the 56 in the candidate region showed single base pair differences in the exons. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that 6 genes among the 10 candidate genes were significantly decreased when exposed to high temperatures. These results not only were useful for the isolation and characterization of the key genes involved in HS but also provided a basis for understanding the mechanism of heat tolerance regulation.

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Wei Zhou, Xiaoming Wang, Jianhua Chen, Liangming Chen, Zhongquan Qiao, and Huijie Zeng

Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle) is a popular Chinese landscape plant with a long flowering period that contributes to its gorgeous flowers and high ornamental value, which motivate L. indica breeding. We found a wild acarpous individual of L. indica that did not bear seeds after flowering and had a significantly longer flowering period than fructiferous L. indica. This study identified differences in floral organ morphology, and stamen and pistil structure between fructiferous and acarpous L. indica through observation, paraffin sectioning, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The flowering time of each acarpous L. indica inflorescence lasts as long as 18 to 25 days. When a single flower withers, it falls from the pedicel without any fruit. The abortion in the floral organ of acarpous L. indica is characterized by sterile and undehisced anthers, pollen abortion, and deformed and irregularly arranged filament cells. Acarpous L. indica features short and loosely arranged papilla cells in the stigma, a flat style and narrow stylar canal, loosely arranged epidermal cells, and no obvious nuclei. No embryo sac cavity is found in acarpous L. indica ovules. In some nucelli, the egg apparatus structure can be observed indistinctly but without cell contour. In others, the egg apparatus structure is completely absent, and only flocculent tissue is observed. This study may provide a theoretical foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of the mutations in acarpous L. indica.