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Xiaoling Yu and Barbara M. Reed

Multiplication and elongation of shoot cultures established from mature trees of hazelnut cvs. Nonpareil and Tonda Gentile Romana were affected by changes in basal medium, carbon source and concentration, cytokinin and agar concentration. Explants on DKW medium produced significantly more shoots than those on Anderson medium or modified woody plant medium for chestnut. Explants on DKW medium with 3% glucose or fructose gave more and longer shoots than those with the other carbon sources. Cytokinins 6 benzylaminopurine (BA) and zeatin were more effective in producing shoots than kinetin and 2iP. On BA supplemented medium, the best multiplication rate was obtained with 1.5 - 2.0 mg/l. Explants grown on 0.4% agar produced more shoots than those on 0.6%, however, prolonged culture on 0.4% agar caused vitrification of lower parts of the plants. Shoot multiplication rates of these two cultivars were similar, but `Nonpareil' produced longer shoots than `Tonda Gentile Romana'.

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Xiaoling Yu and Barbara M. Reed

A micropropagation system was developed for hazelnut cultivars. Grafted greenhouse-grown plants produced many more viable explants than upper branches of mature field-grown trees. Shoots from grafted greenhouse-grown plants collected March through July and suckers of mature field-grown trees collected in July produced the most growing explants (46% to 80%). Three- to five-fold multiplication was obtained after 4 weeks of culture on NCGR-COR medium supplemented with 6.7 μm BA and 0.04 μm IBA. Roots were produced on 64% to 100% of shoots grown on half-strength NCGR-COR mineral salts and 4.9 μm IBA for 4 weeks. Ex vitro rooting by a brief dip in 1 or 5 mm IBA was equally successful. Transplant survival was 78% to 100%. Chemical names used: N 6-benzyladenine (BA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).