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Yanmei Zhang, Xuelin Shen, Xiaoqin Sun, Jia Liu, Yifeng Xia, Xin Zou and Yueyu Hang

Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.) is a group of annual, floating-leaved aquatic plants that serves as food and medical resources in many countries. However, the molecular method for distinguishing different T. natans L. resources is lacking. In this study, we detected genetic diversity of several chloroplast and nuclear genic or intergenic sequences in four varieties of T. natans and one wild type of Trapa incisa Siebold & Zuccarini to evaluate their potential as molecular markers. Our data revealed that the three chloroplast fragments (rbcL, matK, and pbsA-trnH) show no sequence difference among all tested samples. Only one nucleotide substitution is detected for the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in the T. natans variety Shuihongling. Four nucleotide substitutions are detected for the nuclear carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) gene in the variety Hongxiuxie. In contrast, a total of 29 polymorphic sites are detected for a Toll and interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding site–leucine rich repeat (TNL) gene in the five samples, among which six are nucleotide substitutions and the rest are insertions/deletions. The five samples could be fully distinguished from each other based on the TNL gene. To specifically authenticate ‘Heshangling’, 33 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were adopted to amplify genomic sequences from the five samples. A pair of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed based on the results of RAPD markers, which could specifically amplify one target band from all eight individuals of ‘Heshangling’, but none from any individuals of other T. natans varieties or one T. incisa. Taken together, a TNL sequence was provided in this study to distinguish four T. natans varieties and one T. incisa. Furthermore, a RAPD-SCAR marker was developed for efficient authentication of ‘Heshangling’.

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Mingyue Bao, Minmin Liu, Qingxia Zhang, Tonglin Wang, Xia Sun and Jinguang Xu

Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a well-known ornamental plant with abundant flower colors. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of flower color formation is limited. In this study, a wild sample of herbaceous peony (collected from Heze, China) and eight cultivars with different colors were selected for experimental investigation. The Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart was used to determine flower color, and the anatomic structure; cell sap pH value; moisture content (MC); condensed tannin content (Ct); soluble sugar and soluble protein content of the petals; and content and composition of anthocyanin, flavonoids, and carotenoids in the petals were examined. 1) In the white, pinkish white, pale purple, purplish pink, and reddish purple cultivars, deeper color was associated with greater total amounts of anthocyanin (TA). Hypochromic effects were observed for kaempferol-7-O-glucoside (Km7G), myricetin-3-rhamnoside (My3R), and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (Lu7G). The accumulation of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Qu3G) and lutein affected yellow color formation in the petals. 2) There are papillate epidermal cells in the petals of the wild P. lactiflora sample, ‘Lanyucangjin’, and ‘Dongjingnvlang’. 3) Cell sap pH and MC of the petals of white, pinkish white, pale purple, and purplish pink cultivars were greater than those of the purplish red and most of the reddish purple cultivars. 4) The Ct was greatest in the purplish red cultivars, whereas no condensed tannins were detected in the white, pinkish white, and pale purple cultivars. 5) There were no significant correlations among soluble sugar content, soluble protein content, and the other physiological indications.