Energized water production: Underground water, which was not con-taminated with heavy metal ions, chemicals, and much nitrate, etc. => 1) filtering through reversed osmosis pressure filter, 2) nano-sized mineral system with specific stone powder, 3) far red light expositing system, 4) magnetic field treatment, 5) oxygen supply system => energized water (EW). Physical and chemical properties: EW showed higher pH level, electrical conductivity (EC), energy levels by Killian camera and oxygen concentration; however, lower ORP, cluster size as much as 79 Hz by NMR in comparison to underground water, as control. Bioassay of sprouting vegetable plants: In barley germination test, EW showed higher germination rate, strong top/root growth, especially outstanding differentiation of roots in comparison to control. After 2 weeks, the control barley seedlings showed significant symptoms of senescence in root tissue. Also, bean sprouts greatly increased growth in epicotyls and hypocotyls, and development under EW conditions. The roots of control plants showed discolored and mal flavors and gradually decayed in room temperature. With EW supply, vegetable seeds and sprouting plants showed better growth and development of top and root parts. In conclusion, EW influenced the plants to have higher biodynamic potentials for seed germination and growth and development of new plant tissues.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Young Kim
Sweet persimmon, `Fuyu', is the major cultivar for MA storage, but browning of blossom end part (BBEP) and darkening are occurring during storage and decrease fruit qualities in fresh fruit markets in Korea. The symptom of BBEP of fruit started to occur on the blossom end part and spread to the middle and stem end part. These fruits lose their marketable values. Calcium has very important role in cell membrane in physical and physiological. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soluble Ca treatments of fertigation (FG) and foliar application (FA) on soil properties, tree growth and fruit quality and on the occurrence of BBEP. Ca content was high in Ca FA and Ca + IBA FG compared to other treatments. This increase might affect the soil pH, and so pH followed the same pattern of Ca content in soil. In leaves and fruits, Ca content was much higher in Ca Ca FA and Ca + IBA, Ca FG, respectively. Ca content in fruit parts showed stem end part “middle part” blossom end part. In fruit quality, fruit firmness, soluble solid content and fruit weight did not show any tendency in treatments. The occurrence rate of BBEP was very low 14% in Ca FA and 20% in Ca FG than 50% in control. These results showed that Ca content in soil, leaves and fruits was increased by soil FG and FA and the increased Ca content in blossom end part have a negative relationship with BBEP in sweet persimmon.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Xiu-Yu We
Consumers in the United States. and the European Union prefer to purchase medium-sized and symmetrical pears, while most Koreans prefer fruit that is as large as possible. This study was carried out to determine the effect of fruit loading, thinning time, and water management at full bloom stage on the number of seed and size and shape of fruit. As fruit loading increased and the time of fruit thinning was delayed, there was a decrease in fruit weight. The rate of fruit weight under 450 g was 41.7% in the treatment of 30% increase of fruit loading compared to control. There was an increasing tendency of symmetry fruits as the increase of fruit loading. By water stress treatment for 30 days after full bloom, a lot of medium sized fruit were harvested. The rate of symmetrical fruits was increased from the fruit, which held nine to ten seeds per fruit as well as uniformed seed development. Therefore, these results suggested that the number of seed s per fruit showed a close relationship to fruit shape, but water stress and fruit thinning time did not affect the fruit shape.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jung-An Jo
This study was carried out to observe the effects of the pruning strength and the growth regulator on shoot growth and fruit shape in Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka. GA paste (GA) was known as a promoter of malformed fruits, but Mepiquat as an inhibitor. Light pruning treatment, of which removed the half of lateral shoots, decreased leaf area, weight, thickness, and the length of shoots and internodes in comparison to severe pruning. The occurrence of calyx perpetual fruit (CPF) in fruitlet stage was higher about 45% in severe pruning than in light pruning. Light pruning decreased malformed fruit by 10% compared to severe pruning at harvest stage, but there was no difference in soluble solid content of fruits between two treatments. Also light pruning decreased fruit weight. GA paste treatment on 50 days after full bloom significantly increased fruit weight, but Mepiquat decreased. In treatment of Mepiquat and GA the occurrence of malformed fruit was 31.3% and 35%, respectively and the index of symmetry was higher than control. Therefore, these results suggested that the light pruning has a positive effect on the production of symmetry fruit.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells are observed in the process of lignifications of tissues in flesh of pear as a depressing factor of fruit quality. These studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes. During the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, P. communis cv. Bartlett and P. ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
The stone cells events in the process of lignifications of plant tissues in flesh of Asian pear have been growing as a depressing factor of fruit quality. Therefore, these studies were carried out to search the effect of stone cells on fruit quality, to investigate the anatomical characteristics, such as formative period and distribution of stone cell, to seek forming causes, and to determine the effects of drought stress and calcium foliar application on the formation of stone cell. Fruit quality as contents of the stone cells, such as texture profile, reducing sugars, firmness, and fruit size, were determined. During the growing season of 2002 and 2003, samples for anatomical investigations were taken periodically in Pyrus pyriforia cv. Niitaka, Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett and Pyrus ussiriansis cv. Yari. The morphology of stone cell in the fruit flesh was observed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jung-An Jo
Although fruits obtained by organic cultivation (OC) have been believed to be healthier than those by conventional cultivation (CC), but clear experimental evidences supporting the assumption are still lacking. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the effects of OC on total polyphenol content and anti-oxidant activity in `Hongro' apples (Malus domestica). Anthocyanin content of fruit skin was increased in apples from OC. Soluble solid content and pH of apple juice was higher in the OC than in the CC, but total acidity in fruit juice showed reversed result. Also, chlorophyll content showed no difference between OC and CC. Total polyphenol compounds extracted with methanol, were higher in the OC than in the CC, and also higher in peel than in flesh. Also, anti-oxidant activity estimated by free radical scavenging effect showed significantly stronger under the OC than the CC.
Wol-Soo Kim* and Jin-Ho Choi
To find out the formation time of stone cell, drought stress, isolated from water by plastic house, was inflicted on pear trees at 30 days before full bloom, full bloom stage, 30 days after full bloom and 60 days after full bloom during 30 days, respectively. Adhesiveness, gumminess, cohesiveness and chewiness increased suddenly in fruits contained stone cell more then 28.0mg/g in flesh and hardness was higher in pear fruit with higher stone cells, but the changes of the springiness as contents of the stone cells showed no difference. By optical microscope, stone cell observed first from 14 days after full bloom. The adjacent cells to stone cell was first showed spherical type on initial forming stage but showed radial form at 90 days after full bloom. The shape of stone cell inspected by SEM was like a cluster and its size was various. By using TEM, components of stone cell, such as nucleus and vacuole, and secondary cell wall thickening were observed, so it could consider that the stone cell is living thing. The largest amount of stone cell clusters existed beneath fruit skin. The stone cell in flesh enlarged by drought stress compared to control, and then stone cell per areas was the largest at 30 days after full bloom. Therefore, it seems that the drought stress became a cause of inducing stone cell. The stone cell was decreased by the application of calcium chloride 0.5 %, on 30 days after full bloom. Also, fruit firmness was increased compared to control on harvest time. Calcium chloride application showed a possibility for the inhibition of stone cell formation
Wol-Soo Kim* and Sang-Hyun Lee
In order to investigate the cause of differences of mature pollen in Asian pear (Pyrus phyfolia) that are collected from various sources for the artificial pollination, various factors were measured as below: the composition of nonstructural carbohydrate in bud at 30 days after full bloom, the contents of crude protein in skin, cytosol and membrane, and the affinity for lectin (CON-A: Concanavalin, type III A) of glycoprotein in cytosol of pollen were measured. Contents of sucrose and glucose in buds influenced pollen germination rate and pollen tube growth, respectively. Therefore, soluble types of carbohydrates stored in bud were regarded as influencing on pollen germination rate and pollen tube growth. Pollen, which showed low activity, had low affinity on CON-A, lectin of glycoprotein, because it had fragile membrane, proteins in cells were denatured to pollen surface and certain enzymes concerned in pollen germination lost stability and activity. Pollens that showed high activity contained 92 kDa protein while others not. This was assumed as influencing on control of pollen viability.
Wol-Soo Kim and Jung-An Jo
Many trials to supply germanium to fruit have been carried out since tests have confirmed germanium's role as a medical substance. Supplying germanium in orchards by soil and foliar application was not effective because of loss from rainfall. In order to increase germanium absorption by fruit, this study carried out tree trunk injections during the growing season. Two types of germanium, GeO (inorganic type) and Ge-132 (organic type), in concentrations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg·L–1 were supplied to `Niitaka' pear trees by trunk injection (1.5 L/tree), four times at 15-day intervals from June 2004. The treatment with 50 mg·L–1 GeO showed decreased fruit weight, but 50 mg·L–1 Ge-132 showed no difference to the control and other treatments. Fruit lenticels were increased in size by all of the Ge treatments in comparison to control fruit. Soluble solids as well as Hunter value `a' of the fruits of all Ge treatments were higher than that of the control. Flesh browning after peeling the fruit was delayed by the germanium treatment, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities were lowered. Postharvest potentials were maintained at high levels for fruit firmness, physiological disorders, and decayed fruit during cold storage at 0 to 1 °C for 2 months.