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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Sixteen morphophysiological parameters of horticultural importance were investigated in 82 anthurium accessions grown in the Caribbean. The spathe colors included red, pink, white, green, orange, purple, coral, and brown and obake types with red, pink, and white spathe colors accounting for 63.4% of the accessions. There was wider variation in spadix color combinations than spathe color. There was wide variation for the cut flower and leaf parameters evaluated with productivity and peduncle length having the smallest and largest range, respectively. The frequency distributions were skewed to the right for spathe length, spathe width, spathe size, spadix length, spadix diameter, leaf width, leaf size, and productivity and was normal for leaf length, spadix angle, peduncle length, petiole length, and spathe showiness. Accessions with wider leaves had longer leaves and longer petioles; those with longer spathes had wider spathes; and those with longer peduncles had correspondingly longer petioles. Peduncle length also showed moderate, weak correlations with other leaf measurements and spathe parameters, respectively. Spadix diameter showed moderate correlations with leaf parameters. Spathe showiness showed moderate, weak correlations with spathe measurements and productivity, respectively. Principal component analysis of the 13 quantitative parameters showed that the first three principal components explained 75% of the variation in the accessions. Leaf length, leaf width, leaf size, petiole length, peduncle length, and spadix diameter; spathe length, spathe width, spathe size, and spathe showiness; and productivity loaded on the first, second, and third component, respectively. Hence, one leaf and one spathe size parameter, spathe showiness, petiole length, peduncle length, spadix length, spadix angle, spadix diameter, and productivity as well as spathe, spadix, peduncle, and petiole colors can be used as descriptors for anthurium. Based on these results and market information, an Anthurium ideotype adapted to the humid tropics is described.

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Anthurium andraeanum Hort. is an important tropical ornamental crop regarded as second only to orchids in its commercial importance. The genetic basis for productivity in anthurium was studied using parent–offspring regression analysis. Sixteen parental genotypes (4 years old) and 14 biparental progeny families (60 plants each, 4 years old) derived from the parents were used in the study. Yield expressed as number of cut flowers per plant per year (CFPY) was significant both between parental genotypes (P < 0.001) and between progeny families (P < 0.05). Mean CFPY of the parent genotypes was normally distributed and ranged from 4.8 in ‘Local Mina Red’ to 9.8 in ‘Kalapana’ with a mean of 7.5. CFPY in Year 1 was strongly correlated to that in Year 2 (Pearson’s r = 0.96; Spearman’s r = 0.93) and the broad sense heritability (H2) was high (87.6%) under controlled shadehouse conditions. CFPY in the progeny families varied from four to 14 with progeny means ranging from 5.7 in ‘Honduras/Local Mina Red’ to 7.2 in ‘Mirjam/Kalapana’. Progeny of seven and 10 crosses possessed mean CFPY greater than that of the more productive parent and the midparent values, respectively. The frequency distribution for productivity of the 840 progeny plants was skewed to the right with a modal class of six to seven. The correlation coefficient between progeny CFPY and midparent CFPY was large and significant (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The regression of mean progeny CFPY on mean midparental CFPY was strong (y = 0.51x + 2.56; R 2 = 0.81) with an estimated narrow sense heritability (h2) of 51.0%. A breeding strategy for improving per plant productivity based on the results is discussed.

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

The inheritance of spathe color in anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Hort.) was studied in 77 crosses involving 59 parental genotypes. The progeny segregation into “colored : white” did not fit the genetic model proposed by Kamemoto et al. (1988), but fit a duplicate recessive epistasis model involving genes O and R, in which either O or R or both in the recessive form would result in white-spathed progeny. The progeny segregation into red or orange group was in agreement with the Kamemoto et al. (1988) model and is determined by the status of the M gene. The dosage effect of particularly the R gene accounted for the differentiation of reds from pinks and oranges from corals. Putative roles for the three genes (M, O, and R) in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway are postulated.

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

The vase life of 26 anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Hort.) cultivars was evaluated in three separate trials. In the first trial, the influence of 12 morphophysiological characteristics of the cut flower on vase life was investigated. Of these, only spathe color and abaxial stomatal density were able to accurately predict vase life. A vase life prediction equation based on abaxial stomatal density, green/not green and white/not white was able to explain the cultivar variation in vase life in two separate trials conducted over two seasons. The equation was further validated using a different set of anthurium cultivars. Although vase life varied over seasons, the relative ranking of cultivars was similar as indicated by joint regression analysis. Changes in vase life over season were mediated through changes in stomatal density. Time to spadix necrosis was the only senescence indicator that occurred in all cultivars and was highly correlated to vase life determined by a complex criterion in all trials. Time to spadix necrosis is therefore suggested as a simplified criterion for vase life assessment. The possible mechanism for vase life deterioration and an approach to improving vase life in anthurium is discussed.

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Winston Elibox, Charles P. Meynard and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Thirty four pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) from the Caribbean were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions viz. darkness, 21.8 °C, and 90% relative humidity (RH) to determine the genetic variation and morphophysiological changes associated with loss of shelf life. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 10 fruits per replication. The following parameters were recorded over a period of 20 days: fruit weight, shrivelling score, and proportion of fruits showing incipient pedicel necrosis, up to 20% pedicel necrosis, total pedicel/calyx necrosis (but with no pericarp necrosis), incipient pericarp necrosis. Water loss overtime, water loss slope and intercept, and days to incipient pedicel necrosis, 20% pedicel necrosis, total pedicel/calyx necrosis, and incipient pericarp necrosis were derived from the data. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among accessions with respect to all parameters measured. Deterioration under storage initiated as incipient necrosis of the pedicel tip, which proceeded along the entire pedicel and calyx and subsequently into the pericarp. Shelf life varied from 6.6 to 16.9 days based on days to 20% pedicel necrosis and up to 19.5 days based on days to incipient pericarp necrosis. Shelf life based on days to 20% pedicel necrosis, total pedicel/calyx necrosis, and incipient pericarp necrosis were highly autocorrelated (r = 0.94 to 0.99, P < 0.01) and paralleled water loss from fruits. Pepper accessions with heavier fresh fruit weights had lower water loss rates and longer shelf lives than those with lighter fruits. Days to 20% pedicel necrosis and incipient pericarp necrosis were the best measures of shelf life as they best predicted marketability and usability of fruits as early as 8 days after harvest (DAH) (R 2 = 0.94) and 9 DAH (R 2 = 0.82), respectively, thus reducing the time of shelf life studies by half. Based on days to 20% pedicel necrosis, five accessions with shelf lives over 15 days were identified.

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Annelle W.B. Holder, Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Bacterial leaf spot disease (BLS) of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André), caused by Acidovorax anthurii has contributed to the decline of the anthurium industry in Trinidad along with bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. This study investigated the status of BLS 12 years after its first discovery in 10 commercial anthurium farms located in nine geographically isolated areas in Trinidad. The disease was prevalent in only four farms located in Arima, Carapo, Brazil, and Grand Couva, and was a problem only in the wet season. Severity of BLS showed a strong association with prevalence of BLS (r = 0.92; P < 0.01) and rainfall (r = 0.64; P < 0.05). Cultivar differences in susceptibility to BLS were manifested as variation in the severity of foliar symptoms in adult plants and as frequency of systemic infection and plant death in juvenile plants. The native A. anthurii isolates showed morphophysiological and biochemical properties similar to isolates reported from the French West Indies, but with some differences. Native isolates did not grow at 41 °C or produce acid from arabinose, although some isolates produced acid from sucrose and mannitol. Two isolates were negative for urease activity, and one isolate did not elicit a hypersensitive reaction on the tobacco variety, ‘Samsun NN’. The native A. anthurii isolates were positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, negative for acid production from potassium tartrate, and variable for production of acid from ethanol. There were significant differences between isolate colony diameters on minimal media, potassium tartrate, mannitol, ethanol, and glycerol. However, growth in minimal media amended with glycerol produced the largest colony diameters (mean of 8.6 mm). Although there were differences (P < 0.001) between the native isolates with respect to aggressiveness, significant cultivar × isolate interaction was not observed. Isolates collected from different geographical regions did not differ in aggressiveness. These results show that there is greater variation in morphophysiology of A. anthurii isolates than previously reported.

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Annelle W.B. Holder, Winston Elibox, Christopher Avey and Pathmanathan Umaharan

Six anthurium cultivars, grown widely in Trinidad were evaluated for field resistance to Acidovorax anthurii, the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot disease (BLS), in a disease nursery to determine whether resistance/tolerance to BLS can be reliably assessed in field studies. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications and with 25 plants per replicate per cultivar. Data on time to first symptoms, cumulative number of diseased leaves and cumulative number of dead plants per replicate per cultivar was recorded on a monthly basis over a 12-month period. Cubic polynomials were fitted for cumulative number of diseased leaves and cumulative number of dead plants per replicate for each cultivar and the largest slopes obtained during the exponential phase were investigated for the two parameters. The validity of resistance measures were assessed by correlating to field resistance assessed from a farm survey in another study. Time to first symptoms was found to be independent of the cultivar’s BLS resistance score. Cultivar differences for cumulative number of diseased leaves and dead plants were significant (P < 0.001) at 12 months after planting (MAP), with a strong correlation between them (Pearson’s r = 0.84, Spearman’s r = 0.89, P < 0.05). The largest rates of disease progression in leaves or disease progression measured as plant death over time were higher in the susceptible anthurium cultivars compared with the moderately resistant ones. Cumulative number of diseased leaves at 12 MAP was more discriminatory among cultivars and showed a larger correlation with field resistance scores obtained from the island-wide survey than cumulative number of dead plants and is therefore proposed as the reliable measure for assessing field resistance to BLS. The use of this method for breeding anthurium for BLS resistance is discussed.