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  • Author or Editor: William J. Lord x
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Abstract

Six consecutive, single, annual applications of succinic acid–2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) were applied, commencing with 2-year-old trees, in mid-July (51-67 days after full bloom) or mid-August at rates of 1000, 2000 or 4000 ppm. Other trees in the same block received 3 consecutive annual applications of 500 or 1000 ppm SADH in mid-June (31-40 days after full bloom) or mid-July.

All SADH treatments delayed fruit flesh softening and reduced the severity of watercore and pre-harvest drop, but had no effect on trunk circumference increase, amount of bloom and fruit set. There was no terminal growth suppression of practical significance. With the exception of 500 ppm in mid-June or mid-July, all SADH treatments depressed fruit size. SADH suppressed rate of fruit growth and induced the formation of flatter fruits with shortened, thickened stems.

Open Access

Abstract

A planting of ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ (Bisbee strain) apple trees was established in 1981 on M.27 EMLA, P.2/KA313, P.22/KA313, and C.6/KA313. After 6 years, trees on P.2/KA313 and C.6/KA313 were similar in size and larger than those on M.27 EMLA and P.22/KA313. P.22/KA313 induced profuse suckering, whereas trees on M.27 EMLA were virtually sucker-free. Cumulative yields per tree (1984–86) were the highest on P.2/KA313 and C.6/KA313. However, cumulative production efficiencies were highest for trees on M.27 EMLA and P.2/KA313. The least efficient trees were on P.22/KA313. Foliar analyses indicated that trees on M.27 EMLA had the highest levels of N, Ca, Mn, and Zn.

Open Access

Abstract

Late summer pruning of ‘McIntosh’ apple trees for 3 consecutive years improved red color development on fruit but had no influence on fruit size, soluble solids, fruit flesh Ca, flesh firmness, or senescent breakdown during storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruit thinning by a postbloom spray of 1-naphthyl n-methycarbamate (carbaryl) or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was not increased by a previous full bloom spray of gibberellin A4+7 (GA4+7) plus 6-benzylamino purine (BA). Chemical thinning generally increased return bloom but not fruit size. GA4+7 + BA consistently increased the fruit L/D ratio, showed no effect on fruit size or seed number, and these responses were not altered by the chemical thinners. Overall responses were similar for trees treated either one or 2 consecutive years with GA4+7 + BA and chemical thinners. Response to treatment was similar among strain of ‘Delicious’ and did not vary with tree age.

Open Access

Abstract

Summer pruning 6-year-old trees of ‘Cortland’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for 3 consecutive years in either early July or early August reduced trunk circumference increase the year of pruning and increased terminal growth the following year. Terminal growth on 8-year-old ‘Red Prince Delicious’ trees summer-pruned in August for 3 consecutive years was similar to dormant-pruned trees, and trunk circumference increase was reduced the last 2 years. Fruit size and soluble solids were reduced the last 2 years. Fruit size and soluble solids were reduced by summer pruning ‘Cortland’ but not ‘Red Prince’. Flowering, fruit set, yield, flesh firmness, flesh calcium, and storage disorders were not affected by summer pruning of either cultivar. Terminal growth of ‘Cortland’ trees was reduced the year of scoring and the following year. Bloom was increased the year following scoring. Scoring ‘Red Prince’ for 3 consecutive years consistently reduced terminal growth and increased yield the second and third years. Corrective dormant pruning (CDP) on ‘Red Prince’ reduced bloom but not yield the first year. In the 2 subsequent years, bloom, fruit set, and yield were not affected by CDP and the practice alleviated the problem of tree crowding. Summer pruning on ‘Cortland’ trees followed by a postbloom spray of butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethyl hydrazide) (daminozide) of 1500 ppm showed promise as a way to control tree growth, increase flower bud formation, and fruit set.

Open Access

Abstract

Spraying trees of ‘McIntosh’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) with gibberellins A4+7 (GA4+7) + 6-benzyIamino purine (BA) plus 1000 ppm daminozide 17 days after full bloom increased fruit set as GA4+7 + BA concentrations increased from 0 to 100 ppm, but did not alter fruit size, shape, or quality at harvest. Increased poststorage development of senescent breakdown with increasing concentration of applied GA4+7 + BA was attributable to increased occurrence of seedless fruit. Responses to treatments appeared to be due primarily to the GA4+7 component and did not occur when GA4+7 + BA combination was applied after “June drop.” Fruit flesh calcium concentration declined as GA4+7 + BA concentration increased.

Open Access

Abstract

A 7-year pruning trial with ‘Redspur Delicious’ trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) compared growth and fruiting responses to 3 pruning systems: 1) trees pruned with structural limbs spaced around a central leader and 20 cm apart vertically (regularly pruned); 2) central leader trees with structural limbs in tiers and one-year-old wood headed annually (tiers and heading); and 3) trees trained as slender spindles. Heading increased shoot growth from one-year-old wood but not every year. Generally, the growth response was limited to the first 6 subapical buds behind the heading cuts. Heading reduced the number of nodes on one-year-old wood, forced some lateral buds to produce vigorous shoots, and removed the apical section of wood which was shown to be more productive than the subapical sections. Cumulative yields of the slender spindle and regularly pruned trees were comparable, and both were higher than those of trees pruned by the tiers and heading system.

Open Access

`Marshall McIntosh' apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) on M.7A, M.26, M.9/MM.106, and M.9/MM.111 were planted at 10 locations in Massachusetts. After seven growing seasons, trees on M.7A were the largest and trees on M.26, M.9/MM.106, and M.9/MM.111 were similar in size on all sites. Trees on M.7A outyielded (1986-88) trees on the other rootstock at only three of the 10 sites. At three sites, trees on M.7A and, M.26 were similarly yield-efficient, but on all other sites trees on M.7A were the least efficient. Trees on M.9/MM.111 and M.9/MM.106 were similarly efllcient on all but two sites.

Free access

`Summerland Red McIntosh' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) on M.9/A.2, O.3, M.7 EMLA, M.26 EMLA, M.7A, OAR1, and Mark were evaluated over 10 years. Trees on M.7 EMLA and OAR1 were the largest, and trees on Mark were the smallest. Trees on M.7 EMLA produced the highest yields per tree, and those on OAR1 and Mark produced the lowest. The most yield-efficient trees were on O.3 and Mark. The least efficient trees were on OAR1. Fruit from trees on O.3, M.26 EMLA, or M.9/A.2 generally were the largest, and fruit from trees on OAR1 generally were the smallest. Red pigment development was inversely proportional to canopy size, with Mark resulting generally in the most red pigmentation and M.7 EMLA and M.7A generally resulting in the least. Methods of presenting productivity were compared. Presentation of yield per land area occupied or projected yield per planted area were biased in experiments where only some trees naturally would exceed the allotted space and, therefore, were containment pruned and where tree-to-tree competition was directly proportional to tree size. Yield efficiency was a less biased estimate. Further, in single-row planting systems with trees spaced at optimal densities, small trees must be more efficient than large trees to obtain similar yields.

Free access

Abstract

A planting was established in 1964 and 1965 to evaluate the following ‘Delicious’ strains: ‘Red Prince’, ‘Jardine Red’, ‘Royal Red’, ‘Turner Red’, ‘Richared’, ‘Rogers Red’, ‘Gardner Red’, ‘Sturdeespur’, and ‘Starkrimson’, the last 2 being spur types. The strains have been evaluated through 1979. Leaf N, K, Ca and Mg levels varied among the strains but none was consistently different from another. The cumulative yield per tree from 1970 to 1979 was higher for all standard strains except ‘Red Prince’ than for the spur strains. Theoretical cumulative yield per hectare was highest for ‘Sturdeespur’ and significantly higher than all other cultivars with the exception of ‘Turner Red’. ‘Sturdeespur’ had the highest production efficiency. Watercore severity at harvest was inconsistent among the strains, but in 3 of 4 years fewer ‘Starkrimson’ fruits were affected.

Open Access