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  • Author or Editor: William C. Fonteno x
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The determination of air and water holding capacities of horticultural substrates has been plagued by errors in measurement. The amount of air and water held at container capacity is influenced by the substrate and container height. Container capacity can be established through specific measurement. Air space, the difference between total porosity and container capacity, is usually poorly determined because of errors in total porosity measurement. Most researchers calculate total porosity (St) from the formula: St = 1-(ρbp), where ρb is the dry bulk density and ρp is the particle density. While bulk density is usually measured, particle density is not. Many times an average ρp of 2.65 Mg·m-3 for mineral soils is used. This sometimes creates large errors in calculating total porosity because the values of ρp for horticultural substrates range from 0.35 to 2.1 Mg·m-3. Total porosity can be measured with great accuracy at 0 kPa tension on a pressure plate apparatus, but is costly in equipment and time. Using a modified method of extraction and a new apparatus, using standard aluminum soil sampling cylinders, total porosity was measured with an 85% reduction in time end no decrease in accuracy.

Free access

Loose rockwool had a total porosity similar to peatmoss (92%, by volume) but with water retention capabilities similar to sand. Root media formulations containing loose rockwool were tested with seven plant species for plant response and nutrient uptake. The volume percent formulation, 20 rockwool : 10 peatmoss : 20 vermiculite : 45 pine bark : 5 perlite, was superior to formulations containing 10% or 30% rockwool. Plant response in this rockwool medium in bedding plant flats was superior to that in two high-performing commercial media for impatiens (Impatiens sultanii Hook), marigold (Tagetes patula L.), and petunia (Petunia hybrida Vilm) and equal to one commercial medium for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). However, response of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.), geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey), and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Kl.) in 1.58-liter pots was inferior to both commercial media in one-half of the trials. Differential plant responses in the root media treatments did not relate directly to differences found to occur in plant nutrient composition. The high initial pH level of rockwool necessitated reduced application of limestone and increased application of calcium sulfate to offset Ca deficiency.

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Abstract

Basipetal auxin transport occurred in intact and excised Dracaena marginata stem sections at an apparent velocity of about 5 mm/hr. Application of 20 µl of 0.1 mm 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) to the basal cut end of a 3-cm stem segment excised 20 cm from the apex of 1-m-tall plants reduced basipetal auxin transport by 60%. Similar application to the apical end had no effect on acropetal auxin movement. Lateral auxin movement was observed 24 hours after application of radioactive auxin to decapitated stems which had grown horizontally for at least 30 days.

Open Access

Medium CO2 and O2 partial pressures were measured at three locations [3.8 (top layer), 7.5 (middle layer), and 10.3 (bottom layer) cm below the rim] in 15-cm-tall pots containing flowering chrysanthemums [Dendranthem×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] grown in one of three root media. Average ambient medium CO2 and O2 partial pressures were 63 Pa and 21 kPa, respectively, and were similar in the three sampled layers in root media with an average moisture content of 50% to 60% of container capacity. Within 10 minutes after a drip-irrigation application of well water containing a titratable alkalinity to pH 4.5 of 320 mg CaCO3/liter, the partial pressure of medium CO2 increased to ≤1600 Pa and medium O2 decreased to 20.5 kPa in the top and middle layers of the pot. With subirrigation, medium CO2 partial pressures increased to ≤170 Pa and medium O2 remained at 21 kPa. When reverse-osmosis purified water (titratable alkalinity to pH 4.5 of <20 mg CaCO3/liter) was used instead of well water, the large increase in medium CO2 did not occur, indicating that the bicarbonate alkalinity in the irrigation water was the source of CO2. The high medium CO2 partial pressure measured after irrigation was not persistent; within 180 minutes, it returned to levels averaging 45% higher (100 Pa) than that measured before the irrigation. Medium O2 also had returned to ambient levels 180 minutes after the irrigation.

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The physical, hydrological, and physico-chemical properties of horticultural substrates are influenced by particle shape and size. Sieve analysis has been the predominate method used to characterize the particle size distribution of horticultural substrates. However, the literature shows a diversity of techniques and procedures. The effects of agitation time and sample size on particle size distributions of soilless substrates were evaluated for several measures of sieve analysis, including sieve rate (a calculation of the percentage of material passed for each unit time of agitation), distribution median, sd, mass relative span, skewness, and kurtosis. To obtain the standard sieve rate (0.1%/min), pine bark, peat, perlite, and coir required agitation times of 4 minutes and 47 seconds, 7 minutes and 18 seconds, 10 minutes, and 11 minutes, respectively. However, there was concern that unwanted particle breakdown may occur during the particle size analysis of some materials. Therefore, a sieve rate (0.15%/min) for more friable materials was also determined. As a result, the endpoint of sieving was reached sooner for pine bark, peat, perlite, and coir, at 3 minutes and 10 seconds, 4 minutes and 42 seconds, 5 minutes and 14 seconds, and 6 minutes and 24 seconds, respectively. Increasing agitation time resulted in decreased distribution median, sd, and skewness for all materials. Sample sizes half and twice the volume of the recommended initial volume sieved did not change particle size distributions. For more precise characterization of particle size distributions when characterizing substrate components, agitation times and sample sizes should be specified for each material or collectively for all materials to ensure consistency and allow comparisons between results.

Open Access

Moisture characteristic curves (MCC) relate the water content in a substrate to the matric potential at a given tension or height. These curves are useful for comparing the water-holding characteristics of two or more soils or soilless substrates. Most techniques for developing MCC are not well suited for measuring low tensions (0 to 100 cm H2O) in coarse substrates used in container nursery production such as those composed of bark. The objectives of this research were to compare an inexpensive modified long column method with an established method for creating low-tension MCCs and then to determine the best model for describing MCCs of bark-based soilless substrates. Three substrates composed of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) bark alone or mixed with either peatmoss or pumice were used to compare models. Both methods described differences among the three substrates, although MCC for each method differed within a substrate type. A four-parameter log-logistic function was determined to be the simplest and most explanatory model for describing MCC of bark-based substrates.

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Abstract

Moisture retention data were collected for five porous materials: soil, phenolic foam, and three combinations of commonly used media components. Two mathematical functions were evaluated for their ability to describe the water content–soil moisture relationship. A cubic polynomial function with linear parameters previously used on container media was compared to a closed-form nonlinear parameter model developed to describe water conductivity in mineral soils. In most tests for precision, adequacy, accuracy, and validation, the nonlinear function was superior to the simpler power series. The nonlinear function provides an excellent tool for describing the water content for media with widely varying physical properties.

Open Access

Abstract

Handling and preparing growing media can have pronounced effects on the “intensity variables” bulk density and equilibrium volume wetness through changes in pore size distribution. These changes in turn affect the container “capacity variables”: the absolute amounts of medium, air, and water in a container. A nonlinear moisture retention function was combined with container geometry in an equilibrium capacity variable (ECV) model that provided accurate predictions of total porosity, container capacity, air space, unavailable water, available water, and solid fraction for several container-medium combinations.

Open Access

Abstract

Plants grown in small containers often show limited growth due to low levels of aeration and water holding capacity in the medium. These levels can be changed by management practices such as medium compaction, medium wetness at time of container filling, container height and volume, peat : vermiculite ratio, particle size, and the use of a wetting agent. A modified equilibrium capacity variable model was applied to an investigation of media-container interactions for short containers (<5 cm tall). Predicted volume percentages for total porosity (TP), container capacity (CC), air space (AS), unavailable water (UW), and available water (AW) were developed from measured moisture retention data and container geometry. AS increased with: 1) increased particle size, 2) increased media moisture at time of container filling, 3) decreased medium compaction, 4) increased wetting agent concentration, 5) decreased ratio of peat : vermiculite, and 6) increased container height. Increased percent AW resulted from smaller particle size, increased media moisture at time of container filling, decreased container compaction, decreased wetting agent concentration, increased ratio of peat : vermiculite and decreased container height.

Open Access

Wettability is a major factor in determining whether a material can be effectively and efficiently used as a component in greenhouse substrates. Poor wettability can lead to poor plant growth and development as well as water use inefficiency. This research was designed to test the wettability and hydration efficiency of both traditional and alternative components of substrates under different initial moisture contents (MCs) and wetting agent levels. Peatmoss, perlite, coconut coir, pine bark, and two differently manufactured pine tree substrate components (pine wood chips and shredded pine wood) were tested at 50% and 25% initial MC (by weight). The objective of this research was to determine the effects of initial MC and wetting agent rates on the wettability and hydration efficiency of these substrate components. Each component received four wetting agent treatments: high (348 mL·m−3), medium (232 mL·m−3), low (116 mL·m−3), and none (0 mL·m−3). Hydration efficiency was influenced by initial MC, wetting agent rate, and inherent hydrophobic properties of the materials. Wetting agents did increase the hydration efficiencies of the substrate components, although not always enough to overcome all cases of hydrophobicity.

Free access