It is known that the redistribution of water and the formation of dispersed water units appears to be a prerequisite for deep supercooling. A concentration of the cell solute results from the migration of water during extracelullar freezing and lowers the temperature of homogeneous nucleation, but we are convinced that nucleation of ice within cells may be initiated by a heterogeneous mechanism, except we consider a small spherical cave, the water can freeze on the wall of this cave. We are also convinced that the solid walls of the capillary exert an external potential on the water molecules, causing the shift of the triple point of the confined fluids. Based on Fletcher's work for spherical particle, we have gotten the formula of critical free energy in the process of heterogeneous nucleation of water in a small spherical cave. This presentation introduces the theoretical background and counts the drop of temperature in heterogeneous nucleation. Then, putting two actions (depression of triple point and process of heterogeneous nucleation) together, we have calculated the freezing point. Sometimes it is lower than –38 °C. Some phenomena can be explained by using this theory: 1) Water is at the tension status, which means that it wets plant tissue, so the triple point (melting point) of tissue water can be lowered. 2) The redistribution of water, formation of dispersed water units, and dry region preventing ice from propagating, all allow heterogeneous nucleation, then the two actions can be synthesized and the water would lead to deep supercooling. If the barriers were destroyed, heterogeneous nucleation and deep supercooling would certainly be lost. 3) This theory is only suited to rigid wall of small cave, so we understand why cell wall rigidity has been shown to affect freezing characteristics. Project 39870234 supported by National Nature Science Foundation.
Fanyi Shen, Rongfu Gao, Wenji Liu, Wenjie Zhang and Qi Zhao
Yu Liu, Miao He, Fengli Dong, Yingjie Cai, Wenjie Gao, Yunwei Zhou, He Huang and Silan Dai
The NAC transcription factor is a peculiar kind of transcription factor in plants. Transcription factors are involved in the expression of plant genes under different conditions, and they play a crucial role in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stress. We transferred the ClNAC9 gene into Chrysanthemum grandiflora ‘niu9717’ by Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated transformation. The results of kanamycin-resistant screening, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection, and Northern blot analysis proved that the target gene had been integrated into the genome of the target plants. Wild-type (WT) plants and transgenic plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl, NaHCO3, and drought stress, and physiological indexes, such as antioxidant system activity (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase), malondialdehyde accumulation, and leaf relative water content, were measured. We also observed changes in plant morphology. The physiological indexes’ changing range and extreme values suggested that transgenic plants’ resistance to salinity, alkali, and drought stress was significantly higher than WT plants. Transgenic plant growth was less inhibited compared with WT plants, indicating that the ClNAC9 gene increased the resistance of transgenic plants under the stress of salinization, alkalization, and drought.