Taking out and opening the ordinary multilayer fruit paper bag for fruit bagging is labor intensive, costly, not efficient, and potentially dangerous to the operator’s health. There is a high demand to develop a mechanical device for the operation in Chinese orchards. A novel supplying device based on the manual operated fruit bag case was proposed. The open hand of the supplying device operates like a farmer’s hand that can continuously take out a multilayer fruit paper bag one by one, and open it fully from its inside. Mechanism configuration and dimension parameter of the open hand were designed based on preliminary tests. The operation functionality of the supplying device prototype at different driving trajectories and speed was investigated in the study. The laboratory experimental data indicated that driving trajectory was an extremely significant factor for efficiently taking out and opening the fruit bag without sliding off and damage. Driving speed had a beneficial effect on reducing supplying time. With the synchronous driving trajectory and allowable high moving speed, the developed supplying device could achieve more than 90% opening success rate and less than 2-second opening time. The study showed the potential of the developed mechanical supplying device for fruit bagging with ordinary multilayer fruit paper bags.
Hongmei Xia, Wenbin Zhen, Dongyang Chen and Wen Zeng
Dao-Jing Wang, Jing-Wen Zeng, Wen-Tao Ma, Min Lu and Hua-Ming An
Rosa roxburghii Tratt (Rosaceae) of various organ surfaces are widely existing trichomes. Certain varieties have fruits that are thickly covered with macroscopic trichomes. R. roxburghii Tratt (RR) and R. roxburghii Tratt. f. esetosa Ku (RRE) are important commercial horticultural crops in China because of their nutritional and medicinal values. RRE is generally considered a smooth-fruit variant that arose from RR. Despite their economic importance, the morphological and anatomic features of organ trichomes have not been explored in detail for these two rose germplasms. In this research, we investigated the distribution, morphology, and structure of trichomes distributed on the stem, pedicel, fruit, sepal, and marginal lobule sepals (MLS) of RR as well as RRE. This was accomplished using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are various shapes of trichomes distributed on the surfaces of stems, pedicels, fruits, and sepals of the two germplasms. Binate prickles arose on the stem nodes in both germplasms, but acicular trichomes, papillary trichomes, and ribbon trichomes were present only on the surfaces of pedicels in RR. Likewise, flagelliform trichomes were present only on the surfaces of pedicels in RRE. Furthermore, a transection of stems shows that thorns in the two germplasms are composed of epidermis, meristematic layer, and parenchyma cells. The trichome epidermis and meristematic layer in stems of RR are composed of round cells, whereas RRE exhibits square cells in the same layers. Trichomes on the fruit of RR were macroscopic and of single flagelliform and acicular shape. RRE exhibited polymorphic trichomes of flagelliform, triangular, capitate glandular, and elliptic glandular shapes on the pericarp. On the surfaces of RR sepals, there are thick macroscopic acicular trichomes. In contrast, RRE sepals presented flagelliform trichomes and capitate glandular trichomes. It is interesting that no trichomes were found on the surfaces of the MLS in the two germplasms; however, stomata were densely packed on the MLS of RRE when compared with RR. For RR, the trichomes on both sepal and fruit are composed of an epidermis layer and parenchyma cells; however, the epidermis cells of sepal trichomes are polygon-shaped, in contrast to the round epidermis cells in fruit. These results suggest that the two rose germplasms are good candidates for understanding the trichome ontogeny in the genus and for further breeding of the smooth organ trait in this rose species.