The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the impacts of nitrogen on growth dynamics and yield, so as to facilitate the optimization of nitrogen management for muskmelon crop in plastic greenhouse. For this purpose, four experiments with different levels of nitrogen treatment and planting dates on muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Nanhaimi’ and ‘Xizhoumi 25’) were conducted in plastic greenhouse located at Sanya from Nov. 2012 to Sept. 2014. The quantitative relationship between leaf nitrogen content and growth dynamics and yield of muskmelon was determined and incorporated into a photosynthesis-driven crop growth model (SUCROS). Independent experimental data were used to validate the model. The critical leaf nitrogen content at flowering stage for muskmelon ‘Nanhaimi’ and ‘Xizhoumi 25’ were 19.8 and 21.0 mg·g−1. The coefficient of determination (r2) and the relative root-mean-squared error (rRMSE) between the predicted and measured value of growth dynamics and yield were, respectively, 0.91 and 10.8% for leaf area index (LAI), 0.90 and 19.6% for dry weight of shoot (DWSH), 0.76 and 30.3%, 0.82 and 21.1%, and 0.92 and 11.9% for dry weight of leaf (DWL), stem (DWST), and fruit (DWF), 0.91 and 17.3%, 0.89 and 13.9%, 0.86 and 27.8%, and 0.88 and 20.6% for soluble sugar content (SU), soluble protein content (PR), vitamin C content (VC), and soluble solids content (SO) of fruit, and 0.90 and 10.1% for fresh weight of fruit (FWF). The model could be used for the optimization of nitrogen management for muskmelon production in plastic greenhouse. Further calibration and test would be needed during the application of the model in wider range of conditions and muskmelon cultivars.