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Peter C. Andersen and Wayne B. Sherman

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Peter C. Andersen and Wayne B. Sherman

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Paul M. Lyrene and Wayne B. Sherman

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Jorge Rodriquez A. and Wayne B. Sherman

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman and José X. Chaparro

Trees without excessive branching are desirable for the reduction of pruning costs. Genetic diversity for less twiggy genotypes exists in peach and a branching index was developed for evaluation and selection of genotypes with reduced branching. The index is based on the number of total first-order branches and the number of second-order, third-order, and fourth-order branches measured on three randomly selected first-order branches. Index values were highly correlated (r 2 ≈0.7) with the total number of branches over two growing seasons and served as a good predictor of branching patterns observed in the third growing season. Thus, the developed branching index is a useful tool in peach breeding, allowing for the early selection of trees with more desirable tree architecture.

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Thomas G. Beckman, Jose X. Chaparro and Wayne B. Sherman

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Yasar Karakurt, Donald J. Huber and Wayne B. Sherman

Some nonmelting flesh (NMF) peaches develop a characteristic off-flavor during postharvest ripening. A study was conducted using NMF genotypes from the Univ. of Florida breeding program to investigate the off-flavor development in melting flesh (MF) and NMF peach genotypes and to determine the compositional changes associated with the development of off-flavor during postharvest ripening at 8 °C. The study revealed that there were certain chemical components that were consistently associated with the occurrence of off-flavor. Generally, there was a significant increase in total soluble phenolics, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity and ethanol content with the increase in the percentage of off-flavored fruit with time in storage at 8 °C in NMF genotypes examined. However, total sugars and total soluble solids decreased significantly during the storage period. These changes in chemical composition of NMF genotypes were not observed in MF genotypes, which did not show off-flavor development. Moreover, highly significant linear correlations were detected between off-flavor development and soluble phenolics, PPO activity, ethanol content, total soluble solids, and sugars in Fla. 92-21C and USDA 87P285, which had the highest percentage of off-flavored fruit. Specifically, soluble phenolics, chlorogenic acid, PPO activity, and ethanol were positively correlated, but soluble sugars and soluble solids were negatively correlated with the off-flavor development. Thus, it is suggested that the accumulation of soluble phenolic compounds and ethanol, and the reduction of soluble solids and sugars contribute to the of off-flavor in NMF genotypes.

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Milton E. Tignor Jr., Frederick S. Davies and Wayne B. Sherman

Citrus hybrids USDA 17-11 [Citrus grandis L. × (C. paradisi Macf. `Duncan' × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. `Gotha Road')] and 119 [(C. paradisi Macf. `Duncan' × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. `Gotha Road') × C. sinensis (L.) Osb. `Succory'], `Hamlin' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.], and satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) were planted March 1993 and 1994. Trees were irrigated and fertilized in an identical manner. In 1993, electrolyte leakage readings were taken monthly using 17-11, 119, and satsuma leaf discs. Leaf killing point (LKP) LT50 averaged from –8 to – 9C by mid-November for all selections. In 1994, leaf discs from 17-11, 119, and `Hamlin' orange were sampled weekly to determine LKP. USDA 119 had the lowest LKP and acclimated the fastest during the fall. By the end of November, there was no significant difference in LKP (–6.5C) between USDA 119 and 17-11, although both selections were significantly more freeze-tolerant than `Hamlin' orange (LKP–40C), which showed no significant decrease in LKP until the 6 weeks after the hybrid selections began acclimating. Citrus hybrids 17-11 and 119 can survive in freeze-susceptible areas that are marginal for other commercial citrus.

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Milton E. Tignor Jr., Frederick S. Davies and Wayne B. Sherman

`Hamlin' orange trees [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] from a commercial nursery were planted into raised beds on a site that simulated conditions typical of the flatwoods region of the citrus industry. A factorial experiment with three irrigation schedules, based on growth flushes and three nutrient application frequencies (total N, 0.136 kg/tree per year), was conducted in 1994. Trees were irrigated using 90° microsprinklers, and soil moisture content was monitored using a neutron probe. Eleven replicate trees of the nine treatments were included in a completely randomized block design. Weekly freeze tests using the electrolyte leakage method were conducted at –4, –6, and –8C. Electrolyte leakage was determined using a conductivity meter. Different irrigation scheduling based on growth flushes had no significant effect on freezing acclimation. However, increased frequency and lower amounts of fertilizer per application significantly (P = 0.05) increased freeze hardiness from 4.2 to –6.10C by the end of November. Morphological data including trunk diameter, tree height, and flushing status also were recorded. Increasing frequency of nutrient application resulted in a more rapid acclimation of young `Hamlin' orange trees.

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Diane R. Lester, Wayne B. Sherman and Brian J. Atwell

Southern analysis of two ripening-related polygalacturonase (PG) genes of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] detected a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in one that had been previously identified as encoding the endoPG enzyme of melting flesh fruit. This RFLP distinguished the melting flesh cultivars Flavorcrest and Flordaking from the nonmelting flesh cultivars Carolyn, Early Gold Queen, Fla. 86-28C, and Fla. 9-26C. Complete deletion of endoPG-related genomic sequences was demonstrated in the nonmelting flesh variety Fla. 9-20C. In a blind trial, segregation of the endoPG RFLP was followed in relation to the melting flesh trait in a population of 20 trees from `Fla. 86-28C' × `Springcrest' in which the trait was segregating 1:1. Cosegregation of the RFLP with the trait occurred for 17 out of 20 trees. Practical aspects of scoring the melting flesh trait in a genetically variable population may account for incomplete segregation. EndoPG protein was detected by western blotting in fruit of the melting flesh cultivars Flavorcrest and Fragar, but not in fruit of the nonmelting flesh cultivar Carolyn. Results from this study and earlier work are used to discuss the hypothesis that the endoPG gene corresponds to the melting flesh (M) locus of peach.