Leaf mold, caused by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum, is a serious disease of tomato. In the current study, the main physiological races of C. fulvum collected from three northeastern provinces of China were identified using a set of identification hosts. The results showed that the prevalent pathogenic physiological races were 1.2.3, 1.3, 3, 220.127.116.11, and 1.2.4. F1, F2, and BC1 tomato plants were obtained by crossing C. fulvum-resistant cultivar 03748 carrying the Cf-6 gene and susceptible cultivar 03036. Three 10-mer oligonucleotide random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and two simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were selected for the further molecular marking analysis after 210 RAPD primers and 50 SSR primers were screened using the bulked segregate analysis method. The polymorphic DNA bands were amplified among parents, 10 F1 plants, 184 F2 plants including 145 resistant plants and 39 sensitive plants using three RAPD primers and two SSR primers so that three RAPD molecular markers and two SSR molecular markers linked to the Cf-6 loci were identified. Three RAPD markers were linked to the Cf-6 resistant locus separated with 8.7 cM, 20.3 cM, and 33.4 cM. Also, one RAPD codominant marker S374619/559 was found. The locations of the two SSR markers were 12.6 cM and 9.7 cM away from the Cf-6 locus. After cloning and sequencing two specific DNA fragments closely connected to the Cf-6 resistant and susceptible alleles respectively, in the RAPD codominant marker S374619/559 and one codominant sequence characterized amplified region marker S674619/559 was converted from RAPD marker S374619/559. In the RAPD marker S374619/559, the length difference of two specific fragments, 619-bp fragment and 559-bp fragment, is the result of one insertion (60 bp) in the 619-bp fragment. These markers will facilitate the selection of resistant tomato germplasm containing the Cf-6 gene and cloning of Cf-6 to breed new C. fulvum resistant tomato cultivars.
To understand the relationship between fruit cracking and gene expression patterns, we identified two expansin genes from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit and then examined their expression profiles in pericarp and aril at different stages of fruit development, using the cracking-resistant cultivar Huaizhi and the cracking-susceptible cultivar Nuomici. Two full-length cDNAs of 1087 and 1010 base pairs encoding expansin, named LcExp1 and LcExp2, were isolated from expanding fruit using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. LcExp1 mRNA could be detected from the early stage of fruit rapid growth (59 days after anthesis). The LcExp1 mRNA increased and reached to the highest level at the end of growth phase (80 days after anthesis) in pericarp of `Huaizhi', while the mRNA could be detected at the stage of rapid fruit growth, then increased slightly and finally kept remained almost constant in the pericarp of `Nuomici'. Similar accumulation of LcExp2 mRNA was observed in fruit aril of `Nuomici' and `Huaizhi', whereas LcExp2 accumulated only in pericarp of `Huaizhi' but did not appear in pericarp of `Nuomici'. The results indicate that expression of two expansin genes in litchi pericarp are closely associated with fruit growth and cracking.
Partridge tea is one of the famous local herbal teas of Hainan Island, China. In the present study, headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were combined to determine and analyze the volatile components in the red and green leaves of partridge tea. Seventeen volatile components were identified in the red young leaves. The olefins, alkanes, and alcohols accounted for 71.24%, 1.1%, and 0.54%, among which the main components were caryophyllene (22.50%), humulene (18.73%), and α-guaiene (8.78%), respectively. Twenty volatile components were identified from red mature leaves, including 34.74% olefins, 6.14% esters, and 3.11% acids. Eighteen volatile components were identified from green young leaves, among which olefins (70.52%), alkanes (4.32%), and alcohol (0.89%) were the major components. Nineteen volatile components were identified from green mature leaves, among which the olefins, esters, and acids were the major components with the contents of 46.04%, 6.38%, and 1.37%, respectively. Results showed that the major volatile components of partridge tea were olefins, in which caryophyllene was the most abundant. The contents of volatile components between red leaves and green leaves had notable differences, which might be useful for germplasm identification of partridge tea.
Hydrangea macrophylla is the most popular species in the genus Hydrangea because of its large and brightly colored inflorescences. Since the early 1900s, numerous cultivars with showy flowers have been selected. Although many H. macrophylla cultivars have been developed, cold hardiness is still the major limitation to their outdoor use. Hydrangea arborescens is a small attractive shrub or subshrub native to northeastern parts of the United States, which is valued for its hardiness. Interspecific breeding of H. arborescens and H. macrophylla has been tried, but putative hybrid seedlings either died at an early stage or were not verified. We made successful hybridizations between H. macrophylla ‘Blue Diamond’ and H. arborescens ‘Annabelle’ and used in vitro ovary culture to produce viable plants. Hybrids were intermediate in appearance between parents, but variable in leaves, inflorescences, and flower color. The success of this hybridization was confirmed by six simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic markers. The maternal chromosome number was 36, and the paternal number was 38. Chromosome counts of hybrids indicated that nearly half of them were aneuploids. Male fertility of progeny was evaluated by fluorescein diacetate staining of pollen. Twelve out of 14 hybrids (85.7%) had male fertility. We documented the first flowering progeny of H. macrophylla and H. arborescens, suggesting an effective beginning to a cold hardiness breeding program.
Fruit oil content (FOC) is one of the most important commercial traits in oil palm; however, extensive study on related traits is still limited. The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between FOC and fruit-related traits, as well as to predict the oil palm germplasm for potential improvement. In this study, a total of 11 traits, including fruit bunch number (FBN), average fruit weight (AFW), mesocarp-to-fruit ratio (M/F), kernel-to-fruit ratio (K/F), shell-to-fruit ratio (S/F), average fruit length (AFL), average fruit width (AFWD), average shell thickness (AST), mesocarp oil content (MOC), kernel oil content (KOC), and FOC were analyzed in 39 germplasms collected from seven different countries in Asia and Africa. Different statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between FOC and fruit-related traits. Correlation analysis showed that FOC was positively and significantly correlated with M/F, MOC, and KOC, whereas negatively and significantly correlated with S/F and AST. Likewise, path analysis indicated that M/F and MOC have high positive direct effect on FOC, whereas S/F and AST have high negative direct and indirect effects on FOC. Furthermore, regression analysis showed significant correlation between predicted and observed FOC. In conclusion, FOC was mainly determined by M/F, MOC, S/F, and AST, and the FOC prediction in this study was reliable for germplasm evaluation. In addition, G39 (Tenera) and G2 (Parthenocarpy) have the highest FOC with 58.62% and 57.68%, respectively, indicating that they might be potential candidates for FOC improvement. These results could be applicable to oil palm breeding programs.
The objective of the present study was to consider the regulatory role of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) supplementation in response to chilling stress impose alterations on different physiological parameters in melon seedlings. Melon seedlings were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), hemoglobin (a NO scavenger), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an NO synthase inhibitor), and tungstate (a nitrite reductase inhibitor) under chilling stress conditions. The results showed that exogenous SNP improves the growth of melon seedlings under chilling stress conditions and ameliorates the harmful effects of chilling stress by increasing the levels of chlorophyll and soluble solutes, elevating the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase by enhancing the expression level of CmSPS. Moreover, exogenous NO significantly enhances the expression of genes and activities of antioxidant enzymes under chilling stress, resulting in lower reactive oxygen species accumulation. However, the protective effects of SNP are reversed by both NO scavenging and inhibition. Collectively, our results reveal that NO has the ability to ameliorate the harmful effects of chilling stress on melon seedlings by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and the antioxidant defense system.
Application of sugar alcohol zinc (SA-Zn) spray to apple trees at certain developmental stages can improve fruit quality. Increasing the Zn concentration of fruit can improve nutritional content and promote human health. We conducted foliar application of SA-Zn to 13-year-old ‘Fuji’ apple trees at different developmental stages. The effects of SA-Zn application on Zn concentration, reducing sugar content, and carbohydrate metabolism-related enzyme activity in fruit were investigated. The foliar treatment increased Zn and reducing sugar concentrations significantly in mature fruit. Sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was higher in the fruit of trees treated before budbreak and 3 weeks after flowering compared with the control at the early fruit stage and was higher during fruit expansion in plants treated after termination of spring shoot growth. Mature fruit of trees treated during the fruit expansion stage showed higher sorbitol dehydrogenase activity than the control. Foliar SA-Zn treatment did not have a significant effect on sorbitol oxidase activity in apple fruit. Treatment before budbreak and at 3 weeks after flowering led to a significant increase in the activity of sucrose synthase and acid invertase at the early fruit stage. Treatment during the fruit expansion stage significantly increased the activity of acid invertase at maturity but had no effect on the activity of neutral invertase. Our results indicate that foliar SA-Zn application resulted in biofortification of Zn in apples, which led to higher activity of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes and accumulation of sugars.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were used to assess genetic diversity among 30 genotypes of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] representing a broad genetic base, including breeding lines and commercial germplasm. Eight AFLP primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations were polymophic. The polymorphism was 13.0% to 31.9% within the 28 cultivars examined, and 45.3% to 64.2% among all the genotypes. Each genotype could be successfully distinguished based on AFLP scoring. Cluster grouping of accessions based on the AFLP analysis was consistent with that from classification by pedigrees and ecotypes.
This study examined the ability to vegetatively propagate 1-year-old pecan (Carya illinoinensis) through the rooting of hardwood cuttings. Cuttings were treated with varying concentrations of different auxins and different combinations of media and ambient temperatures. Under different temperature conditions, all auxin treatments induced the rooting of cuttings but did not promote sprouting. The effectiveness of the induction of adventitious roots was as follows: 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) > indole 3-butyric acid > indole 3-acetic acid. The base of the parent shoot treated by NAA at a concentration of 0.09%, planted in substrate with bottom heat was the most effective, with 82% rooting, 8.3 roots/cutting and root lengths of 7.3 cm. These findings suggested that auxin and substrate/air temperature differences are both indispensable in the process of adventitious roots formation in pecan. This study revealed that the propagation of hardwood cuttings derived from branches of 1-year-old pecan is possible.