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  • Author or Editor: Walter E. Splittstoesser x
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Abstract

Tubers from 4 species of yams (Dioscorea alata L., D. esculenta Burkiil, D. rotundata Poir., and D. trifida L.) which ranged from 6.1 to 9.8% total amino acid content on a dry weight basis, were analyzed for total protein and protein-bound amino acids. Percent protein, as protein-bound amino acids, was 68 to 83% of that estimated from Kjeldahl N × 6.25. Total amino acids were 89 to 94% of the value obtained from Kjeldahl determinations. When yams were boiled, 25 to 59% of the non-protein amino acids were removed from the tubers. Kjeldahl N × 5.44 correlated well with the total amino acid content remaining after cooking.

Open Access

Abstract

The U.S. National Academy of Sciences issued a report in 1966 (1) stressing the need for research on the principal food plants of the world. Although about 3,000 different species are utilized by humans as food, only about 150 are commercially important. Of these, wheat, com or maize, rice, potato, various beans, sugar cane, sweet potato, sugar beets and cassava feed the majority of the world population. Four are root and tuber crops: sugar beets, cassava, sweet potato and potato. In the temperate areas potatoes, and to a somewhat lesser extent sweet potatoes, are important foods. In the tropics, various other root and tuber crops are also considered staples and zealously cultivated and preserved (18).

Open Access

Abstract

Phytate rapidly disappeared from pumpkin cotyledons between 3 to 6 days of germination. Phytase, the enzyme responsible for liberating inorganic phosphate from phytate, appeared shortly after germination began, and high activities were found between days 3 through 6 of germination. Large pools of inorganic phosphate accumulated in the cotyledons, shoots and roots during germination. By 15 days of germination, 27% of the phosphate was incorporated into organic materials.

Open Access

Abstract

Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Poir, cv. Dickinson Field) seedlings were grown in the light, in the dark, or in the light with the cotyledons covered. Cotyledons kept in the dark or covered, lost a fourth of their dry weight to support axis tissue growth and were dead 25 days after planting. Dry weight of light-grown cotyledons decreased initially but by 25 days after planting equaled their initial dry weight. Dry weight of dark-grown axis tissue increased for 9 days and then remained constant. The weight of axis tissue of plants grown in the light at 25 days was 4-fold greater than axis tissue from plants whose cotyledons were covered. The data show that shading of the cotyledons dramatically affect the growth of the axis tissue of the young pumpkin seedling.

Open Access

Abstract

The diameter of the bulb to the neck (bulbing ratio) of ‘Yellow Bermuda’ and ‘Red Burgundy’ onions (Alluim cepa L.) grown from seed in a glasshouse was determined and the seedlings transplanted in the field. Plants with a large bulbing ratio (above 3.37) did not resume growth. The bulbing ratio can be used to determine which plants will resume growth after transplanting.

Open Access

Abstract

A rapid method to determine the total leaf area of a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plant was determined. A ruler was designed to determine individual leaf area when the linear equation relating leaf area and the length of the middle leaf lob is known. A linear equation can be developed for a specific cultivar. Total leaf area of a whole plant can be determined by counting the number of phylotactic turns and using it in a linear equation relating cumulative leaf area with the number of phylotactic turns per plant. Equations for 6 cassava cultivars are given.

Open Access

A micropropagation procedure was developed to regenerate plants via tissue culture from explants of harvested and stored French endive (Cichorium intybus L. Witloof). The procedure permits the rescue of French endive germplasm that shows resistance to postharvest physiological disorders and diseases. The procedure was used successfully to regenerate plants which showed resistance to different undesirable marketable traits.. Under a long day photoperiod, a high percentage of the explants produced flowers in vitro. Thidiozuron was used successfully to regenerate plants from small leaf explants.

Free access

Abstract

2,3 Dihydro-5,6 diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin (UNI-P293) had no effect upon the sugar concentration in roots of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and beet (Beta vulgaris L.). No visual injury to plants or reductions in yield were noted.

Open Access

Abstract

Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Poir. cv. Dickinson Field) seeds were grouped by weight into small (110-130 mg), medium (150-170 mg), and large (190-210 mg), and planted in a Drummer silty clay loam and in a Plainsfield sand. In the Plainsfield sand, large seeds produced higher yields of pumpkin fruit than small or medium seeds, but total fruit weight on the loam soil was about double of that on the sand soil. No differences in yield due to seed size occurred on the loam soil. There was no relationship between seed size at planting and seedling emergence.

Open Access

Abstract

Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide), (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat), or (2-chloroethyi)phosphonic acid (ethephon) inhibited the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants for 2 weeks when applied at the 2-true leaf stage. All growth regulators inhibited leaf expansion but ethephon increased the number of new leaves initiated. Ethephon delayed flowering after the plants were transplanted into the field. Ethephon or chlormequat-treated plants produced yields similar to untreated plants. Daminozide at high rates increased yield due to a greater number of fruit per plant.

Open Access