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L. Nash, W. Fountain, and M. Witt

In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., W.W. Witt, and M. Barrett

Chlorsulfuron, diclofop, and sulfometuron were evaluated for potential use in selective control of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Polynomial trend analyses indicated highly significant linear and quadratic response curves for percentage of tall fescue reduction for each herbicide. Fall and spring treatments with chlorsulfuron and diclofop provided significant tall fescue control, with slight to moderate initial Kentucky bluegrass phytotoxicity. Fall and spring applications of sulfometuron resulted in excellent tall fescue control, but initial Kentucky bluegrass damage was severe and would be unacceptable for high maintenance turf. Chemical names used: 2-chloro- N -[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]-benzenesulfonamide (chlorsulfuron); 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]proponoate (diclofop); N -[[(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-methoxycarbonyl-benzenesulfonamide (sulfometuron).

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J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., M. Barrett, and W.W. Witt

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the basis for chlorsulfuron selectivity between Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. cv. Kenblue) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Rebel). Tall fescue absorbed and translocated more foliar-applied [14C]-labeled chlorsulfuron from the treated leaf than Kentucky bluegrass. The two species absorbed similar amounts of chlorsulfuron from nutrient solution into the roots, but tall fescue translocated more of the absorbed radioactivity to the shoots. Tall fescue metabolized chlorsulfuron in the shoots slightly more slowly than Kentucky bluegrass. Allof these factors apparently contributed to the higher tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass than of tall fescue to chlorsulfuron. Chemical name used: (2-chloro-N-[[4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5 -triazin-2-yl)amino]-carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide) (chlorsulfuron).

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W.G. Foshee, W.D. Goff, K.M. Tilt, J.D. Williams, J.S. Bannon, and J.B. Witt

Organic mulches (leaves, pine nuggets, pine straw, grass clippings, and chipped limbs) were applied at depths of 10, 20, or 30 cm in a 3 × 3-m area around young pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees. These treatments were compared to an unmulched herbicide treatment and a common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] sod. Trunk cross-sectional areas (TCSAs) of the mulched trees were larger than those of trees in the sod or unmulched plots and increased linearly as mulch depth increased. All mulches influenced TCSA similarly. Mean TCSA for mulched trees increased 14-fold compared to an increase of 8-fold for the unmulched trees and the sod in this 3-year study. Thus, common yard-waste mulches can be used effectively to increase growth of young pecan trees.

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M.L. Witt, W.M. Fountain, R.L. Geneve, and D.L. Olszowy

America the Beautiful and Urban and Community Forestry grant programs, part of the expanded Forestry Title of the 1990 Farm Bill, authorized funding to encourage citizen involvement in creating and supporting long-term and sustained urban and community forestry programs. U.K. Woody Ornamental scientists and the KY Division of Forestry Urban Forestry Coordinator planned and implemented the following educational programs to this end: 1) comprehensive training manual on Managing Trees in the Urban Environment, including a guide for the care and protection of trees, grant application, and managing of volunteers; 2) three publications on small, medium-sized, and large trees for urban spaces; 3) interactive hypertext version of tree selector publications; 4) statewide workshops on Trees in Communities; 5) annual statewide Urban Forestry Short Course; 5) Plant Health Care and Hazard Trees workshops for arborists. The comprehensive program brings city planners, government personnel, public work's personnel, arborists, builders and developers, horticulturists and landscape architects, tree board members, homeowners' associations, Master Gardeners, and other community volunteers together to support quality programming for preservation and enhancement of valuable natural resource of trees.

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R.W. McMahon, R.K. Lindquist, M.L. Casey, A.C. Witt, and S.H. Kinnamon

A demonstration study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of biological and chemical control treatments on the greenhouse whitefly (GHWF) (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Westwood) using poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.) stock plants. Two identical greenhouse compartments, each containing 84 stock plants, were used. In the biological control compartment, three biweekly releases of Encarsia formosa (EF) were made, while in the chemical control compartment eight weekly applications of resmethrin or acephate aerosol treatments were made. Results showed that overall greenhouse whitefly populations in the chemical control compartment were slightly lower than in the biological control compartment. Cuttings taken from stock plants in the biological control compartment at the end of the experiment were commercially acceptable with regard to the presence of GHWF adults. Chemical names used: O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate (acephate), [5-(phenylmethyl)-3-furanyl] methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropane-carboxylate (resmethrin).