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  • Author or Editor: W.J. Hill x
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Growth chamber studies were conducted to determine if inverse day/night temperature could control canopy height of sweetpotato without adversely affecting storage root yield. Four 15-cm-long vine cuttings of TU-82-155 sweetpotato were grown in rectangular nutrient film technique hydroponic troughs for 120 days. Two troughs were placed into each of six reach-in growth chambers and subjected to 24/18, 26/20, 28/22, 18/24, 20/26, and 22/28 °C, respectively. Growth chamber conditions included a 12/12-h photoperiod, 70% RH, and photosynthetic photon flux of 1000 μmol·m-2·s-1 at canopy level. Total and edible storage root yields were reduced by 50% among plants grown under cool days/warm nights regimes. Harvest index was similar among treatments except for the low value obtained at 22/28 °C. Canopy height was positively correlated with the change in temperature, and for every 2 °C decrease there was a 3.1 centimeter decrease in canopy height. Inverse day/night temperature effectively controlled canopy height but at the expense of storage root production.

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Abstract

Mature green ‘Homestead’ tomatoes (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) and 3 advanced breeding lines were treated with ethylene gas and some compositional parameters of the treated fruit were compared with those of control fruit. Tomato breeding line T3702j 2 showed a greater response to ethylene treatment than ‘Homestead’ and other advanced breeding lines carrying the crimson (og c) and high pigment-crimson (hp og c) genotypes. Ethylene treatment had negligible effects on the levels of soluble solids, dry matter, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene in the genotypes studied. The mean pH of the treated samples was slightly higher than that of the control, but was not statistically significant in all cultivars or breeding lines every year. The data suggest that breeders should pay attention to the response of breeding lines and potential cultivars to ethylene-induced ripening.

Open Access

Abstract

Four-node vine cuttings of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) treated with Rootone-F showed higher survival, higher growth rate, and 3 times the number of shoots per plant than 1-node untreated vine cuttings. Survival of rooted tuber sprouts was lower for 5 cm lengths than 12.5 or 20 cm lengths. Rooted tuber sprouts 12.5 cm long initiated more tubers and primary fibrous roots than 4-note vine cuttings treated with rooting hormone.

Open Access

Abstract

Vine production from proximal and middle tuber sections of yam (Dioscorea alata L.), subdivided into whole, half and quarter pieces increased with tuber size. Vines produced from proximal, middle and distal tuber sections decreased significantly with distance from the proximal end. Smaller pieces collectively resulted in greater total vine length.

Open Access

Take-all patch, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx. & D. Olivier var. avenae (E.M. Turner) Dennis (Gga), is a disease of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds.), which most often is associated with golf courses. Synthesis of ligneous and phenolic compounds by plants requires adequate Mn+2 and Cu+2 nutrition and may be a factor in disease resistance. An experiment was conducted on a creeping bentgrass fairway naturally infested with Gga to determine if foliar applications of Mn+2 (1.02 and 2.04 kg·ha–1 per application) and Cu+2 (0.68 kg·ha–1 per application) would reduce take-all severity. Prior to initiating treatments, soil pH was 6.4 and Mehlich-3 extractable Mn+2 and Cu+2 were 5 mg·kg–1 and 1.7 mg·kg–1, respectively. Manganese and copper sulfate treatments were initiated in July 1995 and foliarly applied every 4 weeks through 1997 with the exception of December, January, and February. Disease incidence was decreased from 20% on untreated turf to 5% with the high rate of MnSO4. For both years, turf treated with the high rate of Mn+2 had less disease than turf receiving the low rate of Mn+2. The application of CuSO4, however, did not influence disease development.

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Abstract

‘Patriot’ is a determinate tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with excellent fruit color, developed primarily as a fresh-market or home-garden type. It is resistant to root knot and fusarium wilt.

Open Access

Hand pollinations and honey bees were used to cross Cornus florida cultivars in a series of experiments investigating dogwood pollination biology from a breeding viewpoint and testing the use of insects (domestic honey bees and ladybug beetles as pollinators in dogwood breeding. Experiments were conducted to study possible incompatibility between dogwood cultivars and to determine if self-compatibility and self-fertility occur in Cornus florida. Since 1993, ≈200 seedlings have been produced by hand and insect-mediated pollinations. Honey bees can be used in dogwood breeding. Trees cross pollinated by ladybeetles had lower fruit set than trees cross pollinated by honey bees. Greenhouse forcing to accelerate anthesis and cold storage to delay the onset of bloom of container-grown trees can extend the dogwood breeding season effectively.

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The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] breeding clone TU-82-155 was grown during Spring 1990 and Summer 1991 in standard Tuskegee Univ. (Alabama) growth channels (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m) for 120 days in a greenhouse using a hydroponic (nutrient film) system with a modified half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was changed every 2, 14, or 28 days. Total N, oil, ash, amino acid, vitamin, and mineral concentrations in storage roots generally were higher and dry weight and starch concentration were lower with 2-day solution changes than with those less frequent.

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Abstract

The inheritance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) resistance in Petunia hybrida Vilm. was studied using the inbred parents of ‘White Cascade’, a susceptible F1 hybrid, and ‘Coral Magic’, a resistant hybrid. In each of 6 experiments, 4-week-old plants of the parents, their reciprocal F1 hybrids, the F2 generation, and reciprocal backcross generations were simultaneously tested for PAN resistance. Plants were exposed to 742 μg/m3 (0.15 ppm) PAN for 1.5 hours in a controlled environment chamber. The percent area of bifacial necrosis was determined for each leaf on a plant and an average was calculated to yield an injury rating. Significant genetic variation was detected in each experiment, but the best fitting genetic model varied among experiments, indicating large genotype by environment interaction. In the experiment with the most severe PAN injury, genes for susceptibility exhibited almost complete dominance to those for resistance and epistatic effects were not significant. In other experiments with lower levels of PAN injury, resistance was partially dominant to susceptibility and one or more epistatic parameters were significant.

Open Access