Plants of four apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) rootstock clones, M.7, M.26, MM.111, and Ottawa (O.) 3, were grown in unamended potting medium or in the same medium infested with Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. & Cohn) Schroet., P. cambivora (Petri) Buisman, P. cryptogea Pethyb. & Laff., or P. megasperma Drechsler, causal agents of crown and root rots. Plants were flooded for either 0, 24, 48, or 72 h every 7 days for 4 months, then assessed for disease incidence and severity. Averaged across all pathogens and rootstocks, mean crown rot incidences were 2.5%, 6.3%, 19%, and 50% following weekly flooding periods of 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively; when averaged across all rootstocks and flooding treatments, mean incidences of crown rot caused by P. cryptogea, P. cactorum, P. cambivora, and P. megasperma were 36%, 26%, 15%, and 8.8%, respectively; when averaged across all four pathogens, mean crown rot incidences after 72 h of flooding were 40%, 45%, 50%, and 75% for M.26, 0.3, M.7, and MM.111, respectively. In contrast, 72-h flooding periods in the absence of a pathogen were least detrimental to growth of MM.111 clones and most detrimental to shoot growth of M-26. Exceptions to general trends were reflected by statistical interactions among pathogens, rootstocks, and flooding durations, e.g., after 72-h floodings, 0.3 was the rootstock with the greatest amount of root rot caused by P. cryptogea but the least amount caused by P. megasperma. Differential disease susceptibility among rootstocks appeared greatest with respect to P. cactorum and least with respect to P. cryptogea.
K.E. Maloney, W.F. Wilcox, and J.C. Sanford
`Titan' red raspberry (Rubis idaeus L.), highly susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman var. rubi Wilcox & Duncan (syns. P. erythroseptica Pethyb., “highly pathogenic” P. megasperma Drechs.), was planted in June 1990 in a silt loam naturally infested with the pathogen. Raked beds (0.36 m high) dramatically reduced disease incidence and severity relative to flatbed treatments. In contrast, metalaxyl at 372 mg·m-1 of row provided little benefit when applied to flat beds and provided consistently moderate but statistically insignificant effects when applied to raised beds. Relative to the flat bed system, primocane vigor was increased in 1992 by 16%, 190%, and 224% in the flat bed plus metalaxyl, raised bed, and raised bed plus metalaxyl treatments, respectively; total yields were increased by 7%, 231%, and 272% with these same respective treatment. The results indicate that raised-bed planting systems can provide substantial control of phytophthora root rot of red raspberries even when highly susceptible varieties are grown on otherwise marginal sites. Metalaxyl appears more effective as a supplement rather than substitute for raised beds under such conditions. Chemical name used: N- (2,6-dimethylphenyl) -N- (methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl).
J.A. Pattison, W.F. Wilcox, and C.A. Weber
A hydroponic method was developed and tested for screening red raspberry genotypes for resistance to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the most common causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. Plants of `Titan' and `Encore' exhibited typical disease symptoms, with the latter developing significantly smaller stem lesions and fewer petiole lesions. The resistant cultivar, `Latham', regenerated healthy root tissue from the crown and older-order roots after initial infection and necrosis of young roots and exhibited no other symptoms beyond minor leaf chlorosis. This component of the resistance reaction has not been documented previously. A segregating F1 population from the cross of `Latham' × `Titan' had a survival rate of 56% with 42% classified as resistant, exhibited minimal symptoms, and produced varying amounts of healthy root tissue. This screening method allows multiple observations of all plant tissues, including roots, under repeatable and definable growth chamber conditions. It should be useful for classifying the phenotype of individuals in segregating red raspberry populations to investigate the inheritance of Phytophthora root rot resistance using molecular markers.
M.A. Dalbó, G.N. Ye, N.F. Weeden, W.F. Wilcox, and B.I. Reisch
The efficiency of marker-assisted selection for powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr) resistance in grapes (Vitis L. sp.) was studied using molecular markers associated with a major QTL (quantitative trait loci) for this trait. Initially, genetic maps were constructed from a segregating population of the cross `Horizon' × Illinois 547-1 (a hybrid between V. rupestris Scheele and V. cinerea Engelm.). A major QTL from Ill. 547-1, the resistant parent, explained 41% of the variation. One RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) marker and one AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) marker, obtained by bulked segregant analysis, showed the highest association with powdery mildew resistance in the mapping population. Segregation of the QTL was followed in different crosses by CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence) markers developed from these two markers. An allele-specific amplified polymorphism that segregates as present/absent was also developed from the CS25b locus. Powdery mildew resistance was evaluated visually on a 1 to 5 scale in four different seedling populations. Two populations originated from crosses using Ill. 547-1 as the resistant parent. Two other populations were from crosses with NY88.0514.03, a resistant seedling from the original `Horizon' × Ill. 547-1 mapping population. Segregation ratio distortions were observed in some crosses. In these cases, the allele associated with the QTL for powdery mildew resistance was less frequent than the alternate allele. In all crosses, the markers were closely associated with resistance. If selection were based on markers, the percentage of susceptible individuals (classes 4 and 5) would decrease from 24% to 52% to 2% to 18%. Selection efficiency was greatest in crosses where segregation distortion was most intense.
K.E. Maloney, M.P. Pritts, W.F. Wilcox, and M.E. Sorrells
Phytophthora is a severe root rot disease in most raspberry production regions throughout the world. Disease control options are limited to raised bed culture and fungicide applications. Few Phytophthora-resistant varieties are available that have commercial quality. Little is known about how soil amendments (i.e., composts, fertilizers, and limestones) influence Phytophthora control in raspberry. We evaluated the effects of preplant soil modification on the incidence of Phytophthora root rot in red raspberries. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at two sites to differentiate between the nutritional value of the amendments and the disease control value. One site has a known history of Phytophthora and a the second site is assumed to be free of the causal organism. Raspberry plant growth and fruit yield measurements were taken for all treatments. Preplant soil application of Gypsum (CaSo4) and post-plant applications of phosphorous acid sprays (H3PO3) had the greatest fruit yields compared to all other treatments in the Phytophthora-infested site. Gypsum-treated plots had greater cane diameter, cane height, and cane density compared to the control plots on the Phytophthorainfested site. A second experiment was conducted to further investigate the use of gypsum for control of Phytophthora in raspberries. Field soil was collected for use as potting medium from each of the aforementioned sites and pathogen free `Titan' plants were established in the greenhouse. After subsequent floodings, gypsum-treated soils delayed foliar disease symptoms compared to the control plots. At the end of the experiment, the control plants had 100% foliar disease symptoms and gypsum-treated pots had 33% disease symptoms. This study suggests that gypsum could be used in an integrated approach to Phytophthora management in raspberries. Future research should identify minimal effective rates of gypsum, examine other calcium sources, and determine effectiveness in other fruit crops.