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  • Author or Editor: W.E. Ballinger x
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Abstract

Sand culture experiments with many treatments offer opportunities to apply a solution to the wrong container or plant. Such errors may destroy the treatment differences and, therefore, the experiment. Often it is necessary to depend on untrained personnel for the routine day-after-day application of solutions; this increases chance for error. Therefore, a system of number-color-coding has proven of great value.

Open Access
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Abstract

Blueberries can be handled in water if 10 mg/liter of captafol is added to the water and the berries are immersed for at least 30 minutes. Addition of 100 mg/liter and immersion for 3 or 10 minutes produced similar control of decay. Captafol controlled decay due to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [the imperfect stage of Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Shrenk] better than it did decay due to Alternaria and Botrytis spp.

Open Access

Abstract

Since the techniques of column, paper, thin layer, and gas chromatography are playing a rapidly increasing role in horticultural laboratories and in the interests of horticulturists, two papers on chromatography technique are presented in this issue. W. E. Ballinger and Eleanor P. Maness of North Carolina State University offer an improvement in paper chromatography which has enabled them to materially increase laboratory productivity in the separation of anthocyanins from blueberries. M. Allen Stevens of Campbell Research Institute briefly, but concisely, surveys the principles of gas chromatography and illustrates several horticultural research potentials with this new medium.

Open Access

Abstract

Eighteen lines of Euvitis grapes in 1980, and 30 in 1981, were stored for 9 weeks at 0°C in 5.7-liter telescoping, corrugated cardboard shipping containers with polyethylene liners, with and without commercially available sulfur dioxide (SO2) generators (1 in 1980; 2 in 1981). Decay during storage without SO2 varied greatly among lines (2% to 81% in 1980 and 0% to 62% in 1981). The generator producing SO2 for the entire 9 weeks in 1981 eliminated decay of most grape lots. By comparison, the generators producing SO2 for only 2 weeks permitted 4 times as much decay. Two weeks of SO2, however, permitted only one-fifth as much decay as that associated with no SO2 during storage. Both generators reduced degradation of appearance and flavor of the grapes. The long-term generator was associated with more SO2 damage to the fruit than was the short-term generator. The lines varied widely in tolerance to SO2. SO2 damaged the fruit by entering openings in their surfaces caused by stem tears and cracks.

Open Access

Abstract

Nine cultivars/selections of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were stored for 49 days at O°C in 6 liter telescoping, corrugated-cardboard shipping containers with polyethylene liners, and 3 types of commercially available SO2 generators. Susceptibility to decay during storage varied greatly among selections (7 to 82% decay without SO2). The SO2 generators produced up to 29 ppm SO2 and all 3 types reduced decay. The genotypes also varied widely in their tolerance of SO2. Placement of newspaper in the shipping containers reduced the concentrations of SO2, reduced SO2 damage to the fruit by up to 74%, and had an inconsistent influence on the development of decay. Fruit of selection NC 67A015-17 appeared to be the best suited for long-term storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Eight lines (2 cultivars and 6 selections) of Euvitis grapes in 1982 were stored for 4, 6, 7, and 8 weeks at 0° ± 0.5°C without sulfur dioxide (SO2) generators and for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks with SO2 generators in 5.7-liter telescoping, corrugated cardboard shipping containers with polyethylene liners. Grapes stored without SO2 were of poorer appearance after 4 weeks than those stored with SO2 after 8 weeks. After 16 weeks of storage with SO2, 4 of the 8 lines still had appearance ratings similar to those before storage. Overall, good flavor was maintained over 7 weeks without SO2 and over 12 weeks with SO2. During 8 weeks of storage without SO2, 6 of the 8 lines developed 23% to 60% decay. In contrast, 6 of the 8 lines stored with SO2 for 16 weeks developed 3% or less decay. SO2 injury (percentage by number) ranged from 0% to 59% but was judged to be objectionable in flavor or appearance in only 2 instances. All lines stored well for 12 weeks with SO2. Of the 8 lines, ‘Suffolk Red’ was judged to be outstanding. After 20 weeks of storage with SO2, ratings of its appearance and flavor were equal to those before storage; decay was only 3.5%.

Open Access

Abstract

The relationship of holding temperature and stage of ripeness to decay development of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L) was determined comparing 6 sets of 5 ripeness classes (light-sorted; 740-800 nm) stored at 1.1°, 10.0°, and 22.2°C. On each of 6 dates, 1 set (3 temperatures × 5 ripenesses × 4 replications) was removed from storage and sorted for decay. Regardless of cultivar or stage of ripeness, all blueberries stored at 22.2° decayed rapidly (within 5 days). Only when the blueberries were held at 1.1° did the time and expense of light-sorting appear economically justifiable; i.e., overripe berries (% soluble solids (SS)/% acid (Ac) ratio = 30) required about 12 days while just-ripe blue fruits (SS/Ac = 10) required about 32 days to develop 20% decay. Estimates of maximum degree of ripeness (SS/Ac) for fresh marketing (< 20% decay at retail) were made: Trans-Atlantic (up to 20,) transcontinental (up to 27), and local (⋜ 1200 km) (up to 30). Fruit riper than SS/Ac = 30 should be processed within 24 hours.

Open Access

Abstract

Irrigation did not influence total yield, growth, or longevity of ‘Elberta’ or ‘Redhaven’ peach trees. Yields were depressed when N was reduced to 0.2 kg/tree (approx 1/2 recommended rate) with both cultivars. Increasing N above the recommended rate did not influence yield. Highest yields were obtained with lightest pruning level but fruit size was reduced. Random tree loss occurred with all treatments but was highest with low N rates.

Open Access

Abstract

Individual fruit pH, total acidity (AC as %), soluble solids (SS as %), and SS/AC ratios correlated significantly with anthocyanin contents of ‘Wolcott’, ‘Morrow’, ‘Jersey’, and ‘Tifblue’ blueberries as measured by light transmission (ΔOD740-800 nm). Fruit orientation with respect to the light path influenced readings. The relationships of the light transmission values to the quality indices differed among cultivars.

Open Access

Abstract

Regardless of season, location, harvest date, or size, ‘Wolcott’ blueberry fruits sorted with transmitted light according to their anthocyanin (ACY) contents were reasonably well separated for quality as expressed by pH, titratable acid (AC), soluble solids (SS) and the SS/AC ratio. Quality of fruits of the same ACY class differed according to cultivar (‘Wolcott’, ‘Berkeley’, and ‘Jersey’). AC content of the fruit decreased slightly during the season regardless of ACY class or cultivar. This consistent reduction in AC as the season progressed was accompanied by increases in the SS/AC ratios and development of decay. Location of harvest (farm to farm) influences SS somewhat. A long harvest interval produced a small but consistent effect on all quality parameters.

Open Access