Juvenile albino, gene symbol ja, is a spontaneous virescent mutant, first observed in `Dixielee' and an F2 population of `G17AB' (msms) × `Dixielee' in 1992. Hypocotyls, new young leaves, shoot tips, tendrils and flowers on the main shoot of the ja mutant are all albino during early spring. The interior portions of albino leaves gradually become green, while the margins remain albino. Fruit rind color of the mutant is variegated. Growth of the ja mutant is severely impaired in the early spring. However, the mutant grows at a rate comparable to wild-type in the summer, and produces fruit of almost normal size. Genetic analysis of F1, F2, and BC1 populations derived from the ja mutant showed that the gene for the ja mutant is inherited as a single, recessive, nuclear gene. Segregation ratios in the F2 and BC1 progenies derived from the cross between the previously reported delayed green virescent mutant and the ja mutant indicate independent inheritance of the genes dg and ja. Temperature and red/far-red light had no differential effect on mutant and the wild-type plants. An increase of daylength from 8 to 15 hours increased fresh weight and chlorophyll content more in the ja mutant than in the wild-type. The mutant had a higher chlorophyll a: b ratio than the wild-type under long days. Chlorophyll synthesis or accumulation in the mutant is severely impaired under short days. This is the only virescent mutant in the family Cucurbitaceae whose expression is regulated by daylength.
X.P. Zhang, B.B. Rhodes, W.V. Baird, H.T. Skorupska, and W.C. Bridges
X.P. Zhang, B.B. Rhodes, W.V. Baird, H.T. Skorupska, and W.C. Bridges
Hybrid seed production can be facilitated by using male sterility coupled with a seedling marker. This research was initiated to combine the ms male sterility and dg delayed-green seedling marker into watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] lines. Male-sterile plants of the male-sterile line G17AB were crossed with plants of delayed-green breeding line Pale90, which has yellow cotyledons and pale-green, newly developed, true leaves. The double-recessive recombinants, male sterile and delayed green, from the F2 population were backcrossed to the male-fertile plants of G17AB. The pedigree method was used for selection in the progenies. The segregation ratios obtained from F2 and BC1F2 populations suggest that the male-sterile and delayed-green traits are inherited independently and that delayed green is inherited as a single recessive nuclear gene. Two male-sterile watermelon lines with delayed-green seedling marker have been developed. These lines will provide a convenient way to introduce male sterility and the delayed-green seedling marker into various genetic backgrounds. These two lines can be used for testing the efficiency of a new, hybrid, watermelon, seed production system.
X. Zhang, B.B. Rhodes, W.V. Baird, H.T. Skorupska, and W.C. Bridges
juvenile albino (ja) is a spontaneous mutant, first observed in 1992. Hypocotyls, new young leaves, shoot tips, tendrils, and flowers on the main shoot of the ja mutant are all albino during early spring and late fall. The interior of the albino leaves gradually become green, while the margins remain albino. Fruit rind color of the mutant is variegated. Growth of the ja mutant is severely impaired in the early spring and late fall. However, the mutant grows almost normal in the summer, and produces fruits of almost normal size. Genetic analysis of F1, F2, and BC1 populations derived from the ja mutant showed that ja mutant is inherited as a single, recessive, nuclear gene. The segregation ratios in the F2 and BC1 progenies derived from the cross between the previously reported dg virescent mutant and the ja mutant indicated that both are inherited independently. Experiments with temperature (3–5C vs. 20–22C at night), day length (8 vs. 15 h), and red and/or far-red light (15 vs. 0 min) at the end of an 8-h day were performed to investigate the regulation of ja trait expression. Temperature and red/far-red light had no differential effect on mutant and wild-type plants. However, significantly increased fresh weight and chlorophyll content were observed in the ja mutant over the wild-type when grown under long-day conditions. In addition, chlorophyll synthesis or accumulation in the mutant is severely impaired under short-day conditions. To our knowledge, this is the only virescent mutant in Cucurbitaceae whose expression is regulated by day length.
X.P. Zhang, B.B. Rhodes, W.V. Baird, W.C. Bridges, and H.T. Skorupska
This research was conducted to develop genic male-sterile lines of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum & Nakai) homozygous for the juvenile albino (ja) seedling marker. Male-sterile plants (msms) of the genic male-sterile line G17AB were crossed with a Dixielee plant that was heterozygous for the ja locus. Male-fertile, juvenile albino recombinants of the F2 progeny were self-pollinated, resulting in F3 progeny. The male-sterile normal green recombinants of the F2 progeny were crossed with an F1 hybrid plant with genotype MsmsJaja, and three populations (93JMSB-1, -2, and -3) were obtained from these crosses. Juvenile albino recombinants were confined to 93JMSB-1. Of the juvenile albino plants of 93JMSB-1, male-sterile plants were sib-crossed with male-fertile plants, resulting in 93JMSB-1-1. Progeny of 93JMSB-1-1 was homozygous for ja and segregated for ms in a 127 male-sterile: 128 male-fertile ratio, fitting a 1:1 ratio. The male-sterile juvenile albino plants of F3 were crossed with male-fertile juvenile albino plants of 93JMSB-1, resulting in 93JMSF3-1 and -2. Plants 93JMSF3-1 and -2 were homozygous for ja but segregated for ms at 10 male-sterile: 13 male-fertile and 15 male-sterile: 19 male-fertile for 93JMSF3-1 and 93JMSF3-2, respectively, fitting the 1:1 ratio. These three genic male-sterile lines with the ja seedling marker provide valuable germplasm for introducing ms and ja genes into diverse genetic backgrounds and for studying cross-pollination and gene flow in watermelon populations.
Jeffrey W. Adelberg, Bill B. Rhodes, Halina T. Skorupska, and William C. Bridges
Adventitious and axillary shoots of melon (Cucumis melo L.) were cultured from explants on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10 μm BA. Explants were diversified with regard to genetic source (breeding lines Miniloup, L-14, and B-line), seed parts (apical and cotyledon tissue), seed maturity (10-40 days after pollination; DAP), and cotyledon sections with respect to apical-radicle axis (distal and proximal). Plants were screened for ploidy level by pollen morphometry. Immature cotyledons produced more tetraploid regenerants than mature cotyledons from seed of breeding line Miniloup; the highest frequency of tetraploid regenerant plants was from cotyledons of embryos harvested 18 and 22 DAP. Explants from the apical meristem of the same seeds produced fewer or no tetraploid plants. Proximal sections from immature cotyledons of three genotypes (Miniloup, L-14, B-line) produced higher frequencies of tetraploids than whole mature cotyledons or whole immature cotyledons.