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  • Author or Editor: W.B. Sherman x
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Abstract

Scion cultivars have been the basis of fruit industries and the main concern of most fruit research. Stock cultivars have often been taken for granted and rootstock breeding neglected because it has not been immediately rewarding to the breeder. Rootstock breeding, like many long term research programs, has not been strongly supported by various granting agencies, which often seek quick solutions to industry problems.

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Abstract

Temperate zone (deciduous) fruit crops are cultivated largely in areas far removed from their center of origin. Selection and breeding have improved climatic adaptation in these perennial crops. Current breeding programs are attempting to broaden this adaptation by developing cultivars with high mid-winter cold tolerance, late blooming to avoid spring freezes, and increased disease resistance. The attainment of these and other breeding objectives will recessitate the use of noncommercial exotic germplasm. The range of these fruits also is being extended to the subtropics and tropical highlands through selection and breeding. It is only through genetic manipulation that more productive and adapted plant materials are likely to be developed. Germplasm centers are needed to maintain and provide the array of genetic variability necessary for continued scion and rootstock improvement.

Open Access

Abstract

Date of 50% anthesis, date of 50% fruit ripening, length of fruit development period, fruit size, flavor, scar and color were determined for random samples of V. darrowi Camp, V. elliottii (Chapm.) Small, V. fuscatum Ait., and V. myrsinites Lam. growing in their native habitats in Alachua County, Florida. Mean berry weight ranged from 25.1 eg for V. fuscatum to 17.8 eg for V. myrsinites. V. elliottii flowered and ripened early, with only 60 days from flowering to ripening for 5 plants. V. myrsinites and V. darrowi flowered late, about 1 to 2 weeks after commercial V. ashei Reade, but ripened with V. ashei. Fruit ranged from shiny black to moderately glaucous for V. elliottii and V. darrowi but was black for V. fuscatum and V. myrsinites. Variance analysis suggested that selecting the best clone within a species is almost as important as selecting the best species in breeding most traits.

Open Access

Abstract

Pollination of about 7000 flowers of tetraploid highbush blueberry clones with pollen from a wild diploid species, V. elliottii (Chapm.) Small, gave 25 phenotypically obvious hybrids. Examination of 18 of these hybrids showed that they included triploids, tetraploids, pentaploids, and aneuploids. Some hybrids appeared to be mosaics, as evidenced by chromosome-number variability in premeiotic flower buds. Most hybrids were highly vigorous. The triploids were completely female sterile and the pentaploids ranged from partially to completely female sterile when open-pollinated. Three of the tetraploids examined were highly fertile and extremely vigorous. The occurrence of 3x-4x mosaicism suggests that the 3x hybrids may have arisen from chromosome loss in 4x plants rather than from 3x zygotes. Morphological similarities between certain of the 5x hybrids and the west Florida race of the native allohexaploid species V. ashei Reade suggest V. corymbosum L.–V. elliottii allohexaploidy as one possible mode of origin for V. ashei.

Open Access

Abstract

The true blueberries of the genus Vaccinium L., subgenus Cyanococcus Kl, as described by Camp (4), are predominantly a North American group, although some Asiatic species are included. More distantly related groups are found on the Pacific coast, such as V.ovatum Pursh, and in tropical America, Africa and other areas of the world. Additional Vaccinium relatives include the sugenera Polycodium Raf., the deerberries, and Batodendron Nutt, the Farkleberry or Tree or Winter-huckleberry, and the genus Gaylussacia H.B.K., the huckleberries.

Open Access

Abstract

Temperate climate blackberries and raspberries exhibit weak growth and sparse fruiting in Florida (6, 8) because insufficient chilling in winter is obtained for normal termination of rest. Florida's native blackberries have been harvested since pioneer days for jams, pies, and fresh use, but this industry has remained very small. Rubus breeding was initiated at the University of Florida in 1953 to produce better bramble cultivars adapted for growing in warmer climates. Few introduced species and cultivars have an inherent low chilling requirement with sufficient winter cold hardiness to survive in Florida. Native types produce small berries with fruit quality below commercial acceptability. Moreover, lack of flavor is recognized as a limiting factor in most of the low chilling germplasm, especially in the trailing blackberries and ‘Mysore’ raspberry. Two reviewers of the Rubus project, G. M. Darrow, 1957, and I. C. Haut, 1958, suggested that major efforts should be made to combine features of high fruit quality from the non-adapted temperate zone varieties with climatically adapted local types.

Open Access

Abstract

V. myrsinites Lam. is most susceptible to canker among the blueberry species native to Florida and survives by resprouting from underground rhizomes. V. darrowi Camp suffers less canker damage than V. myrsinites, some mature colonies showing little or no damage but others being nearly destroyed by the disease. Most mature V. darrowi colonies in the State have some stems cracked and swollen by canker. Old native plants of V. ashei Reade and V. fuscatum Ait. show light to moderate canker damage in many parts of the State but both species are more resistant than the previous two. V. elliottii Chapm. shows no canker over much of its range in Florida, but localized populations have moderate to high infection. Only one cankered plant of V. arborewn Marsh, has been found, and no canker has been found on V. stamineum L.

Open Access

Abstract

Florida's early season, fresh market rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) industry has been based mainly on the cultivars Beckyblue, Climax, Aliceblue, and Premier. Both ‘Aliceblue’ and ‘Premier’ have given problems with poor fruit set after mild winters, particularly in areas south and east of Gainesville (1); thus, there is a need for additional early ripening cultivars to interplant with ‘Beckyblue’ and ‘Climax’. ‘Bonita’ is being released for this purpose by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Science from the Univ. of Florida blueberry breeding program.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Flordablue’ (Fig. 1) has been released by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences Fruit Crops Department to fill the need for a blueberry with fruit quality and earliness of northern highbush cultivars and adaptation to the climate of central Florida.

Open Access