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  • Author or Editor: W. W. Jones x
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Abstract

By far the most important subtropical fruit is citrus and the most widely grown citrus is the sweet orange. Lemon and grapefruit also are important citrus species. Other important subtropical fruits are dates, figs, and olives. Tropical fruits are most numerous in kinds, and a few, such as the avocado, litchi and mango are grown on a commercial scale in the subtropical regions. Others, such as bananas, pineapples, coffee, and papaya, are strictly tropical. It is not an uncommon practice to apply K, but it is done in many cases without a demonstrated need. With the realization of the broad effects of K, such a practice should not be followed, but K level should be adjusted to give optimum response for both quality and yield. For this diagnostic methods and standards are required.

Open Access

Abstract

An increase in the K level in orange and grapefruit trees generally increases the thickness of the peel and reduces the percentage of juice in the fruit. Data presented in this report show that an increase in K in the lemon tree has the opposite effect as that which occurs in the orange and grapefruit tree. An increase in the level in lemon trees resulted in thinner peels and in a higher percentage of juice in the fruit.

Open Access
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Abstract

A simple-leaved pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch] seedling was found in a Riverside seedling nursery by Larry Womack of Womack Nurseries, DeLeon, Texas. This uncommon specimen was preserved by grafting it to a normal pecan seedling rootstock sometime in the early 1960’s. Wood from the variant was grafted on orchard seedlings at the U. S. Pecan Field Station, Brownwood, Texas, in April 1973 and on 1-year-old greenhouse-grown Riverside seedlings in Feb. 1974. This paper reports observations of the growth and gross morphology of this unusual variant.

Open Access
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Abstract

Suitable parents for the production of F1 hybrid seed between almond and root-knot nematode resistant peach were selected. Three of 13 almond selections were found which, when pollinated by ‘Nemaguard’ pollen, produced good sets of seed. When germinated, their seedlings showed good root-knot nematode resistance, hybrid vigor, and exceptional compatibility with almond tops.

The self-incompatibility of almond was used to permit natural pollination between selection CP5-33 and a selected seedling of ‘Nemaguard’, 3-28. The F1 hybrids proved to be very compatible as rootstocks with almond and peach tops and imparted increased vigor to them.

Both ‘Nemaguard’ and a selected seedlings of ‘Nemaguard’ served as good pollen parents. ‘Okinawa’ peach, another rootknot nematode resistant peach type rootstock, was a less satisfactory pollen parent.

Open Access

Abstract

Starch in the roots of mandarin trees (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Kinnow) was drastically reduced by an “on” crop. This was related to prolonged bud dormancy, delayed spring growth and an “off’ crop the following year.

Open Access

Abstract

Where Mg deficient ‘Washington’ navel orange trees were sprayed with Mg, leaf Mg was increased from a deficient to an optimum level in the first year of application. However, it was not until the fourth year of application that a yield increase occurred. At least 2 sprays annually were required. There was an increase in total soluble solids in the juice as a result of the sprays, but there were no other consistent effects on fruit quality. Magnesium in the feeder roots was increased by the foliage sprays. Leaf K was decreased by the Mg sprays. One year after cessation of the sprays the leaf Mg was again in the deficiency range.

Open Access

Abstract

In a 5-year factorial fertilizer experiment, an increase in leaf N from 2.54 to 2.71% by soil applications of urea, reduced creasing and fruit size and increased green color on the fruit at harvest. Leaf K was increased from 0.47 to 0.67% by soil application of K2SO4 and to 0.65% by foliar application of KNO3; except for degree of fruit color and leaf N content, effects of soil- and foliar-applied K differed little and both increased yield, fruit size, and green color on the fruit and reduced creasing. Increasing leaf P from 0.132 to 0.139% had little influence on factors influencing the value of the fresh-fruit crop. Gibberellic acid (GA) sprays increased green color on the fruit and reduced creasing. The effects of N, K, and GA on reducing creasing and increasing green color on the fruit were strongly additive. There was an inverse relation between creasing and green color of fruit. Each problem can be reduced but at the expense of the other, and both problems cannot be reduced simultaneously. Packinghouse statements showed that monetary returns/tree were increased about 75% by K treatments without GA; 17% with GA alone; 61% with GA + soil-applied K; and 42% with GA + foliar-applied K.

Open Access

Abstract

Field experiments in the past on Valencia orange trees in California have not shown any clear K deficiency as indicated by the effects of K applications on numbers of fruit produced per tree. Such experiments were established with little knowledge of the initial K nutritional status of the trees in question. Commercial use of citrus leaf analysis as a diagnostic tool has increased in recent years, and through this medium an orchard was found near Escondido, California with leaf K levels which indicated possible K deficiency. Some of the initial results of an experiment in this orchard are given in Table 1.

Open Access

Kentucky State Univ. (KYSU) emphasizes research on developing alternative, high-value crops and sustainable agriculture methods for use by limited-resource farmers. Since 1990, KYSU has maintained a research program to develop pawpaw into a new high-value tree fruit crop. With its high tolerance for many native pests and diseases, pawpaw shows great potential as a crop for organic and sustainable production. The objectives of KYSU's pawpaw research program include: 1) variety trials; 2) development of new or improved methods of propagation; 3) collection, evaluation, preservation, and dissemination of germplasm; and 4) sharing of information on pawpaw with scientists, commercial growers and marketers, and the general public. To aid in dissemination of information on pawpaw, a web site has been developed (http://www.pawpaw.kysu.edu) that includes information on current and past pawpaw research at KYSU and information on the PawPaw Foundation. On this site, there are a selected bibliography of publications on pawpaw and related species; pawpaw recipes and nutritional information; a guide to buying and growing pawpaws; photos of pawpaw trees, flowers and fruit; and links to other web sites with pawpaw information. In the future, the site will include results from the pawpaw regional variety trials and the database for the National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp., located at KYSU. The pawpaw information web site will be an increasingly useful aid in the introduction of pawpaw as a new, potentially high-value, tree fruit crop.

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