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  • Author or Editor: W. R. Okie x
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Plumcots are hybrids of plums (usually Japanese-type) and apricots. In recent years, several new plumcots have been released, but most of these have been unreliable croppers and tree health of those tested in the Southeast has been poor. Some do have very high quality fruit, combining the best features of both parents. BY88Z1092 appeared as a chance hybrid in a lot of open-pollinated seedlings from the plum selection BY8111-6, which was a hybrid of BY4-601 (=`Queen Anne'*`Santa Rosa')*`Frontier'. BY8111-6 was a high-quality, midseason plum with black skin and amber flesh. BY88Z1092 blooms about with 750 chill hour peaches, and appears to be somewhat self-fertile. Cropping is heavy at Byron in absence of severe spring frosts. Tree health is good, comparable to local adapted plums such as `Black Ruby'. Trees are upright in growth habit. Fruit of BY88Z11092 ripen in late May, when quality of other adapted plums is insipid. It has firm yellow-orange flesh and a purple-black skin with light pubescence. Flavor is acidic until the fruit begins to soften, at which time it is very good. Fruit size will reach 4 to 5 cm in diameter if properly thinned. BY88Z1092 is in the final stages of testing and will likely be named within the next year.

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`Black Ruby' is the newest plum released by the USDA stone fruit breeding program at Byron. This variety has large, firm fruit that ripens in early July, about 1 week after `Santa Rosa'. Fruit has reddish-black skin and yellow flesh. Eating quality is very good. `Black Ruby' has an upright tree similar to `Santa Rosa', except that tree health and vigor are much better than `Santa Rosa'. USDA has been breeding plums for the humid Southeast for 30 years. Goals are to combine large, firm, high-quality fruit with a disease-resistant tree that will live 8 to 10 years. Most plum varieties are short-lived in our area due to disease caused by Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, and Xylella. Most existing varieties adapted to our climate have fruit unsuitable for commercial production. Previous USDA releases include “green plum” types `Robusto' (1980) and `Segundo' (1984); a yellow plum, `Byrongold' (1985); a black shipping plum, `Explorer' (1980); and the blood-fleshed, high-quality `Rubysweet' (1989).

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Abstract

Two-node stem cuttings of 23- to 79-day-old seedlings of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] rooted readily under mist in 3 weeks and rooted better than 1-node cuttings. Cuttings from young seedlings rooted well without leaf-trimming or hormone treatments. Rooting of cuttings from lower nodes of older seedlings was improved by an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) dip. Soil mix (1 soil : 1 peat : 1 vermiculite, by volume), Metro-Mix 300, vermiculite, and peat pellets all allowed adequate rooting in contrast to sand. Slow-release fertilizer improved root growth. Survival rates of 70–95% were obtained using vigorous young stock plants, 2-node cuttings, and soil mix plus Osmocote. Subsequent growth appeared similar to seedling growth.

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“Peach and Nectarine Varieties” is a self-contained computer program describing more than 600 varieties and their performance in the southeastern United States. The information can be accessed in various ways, including searching for any word or name. A Master Index of names and synonyms lists more than 6000 names used in the United States, plus many foreign names. This index includes pedigree, origin, and a coded description. General information is included regarding peaches and nectarines. All North American breeding programs are chronicled. The program is available for MS-DOS computers with an EGA or VGA monitor, and may be freely distributed.

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