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  • Author or Editor: W. J. Render x
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Abstract

In axillary meristems laid down just prior or subsequent to commencement of growth regulator applications, exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) alone promoted runner formation. Strongly-inhibited axillary buds with leaf primordia responded to GA + BA (benzyladenine) with runner formation in the June-bearer ‘Fortune’. Few of the inhibited buds of the everbearer ‘Geneva’ responded to GA or GA + BA. Following application of BA alone, inhibited buds of June-bearing cultivars formed lateral crowns (‘Fortune’) or runners (‘Earlidawn’). Runner formation following chilling of June-bearing ‘Fortune’ plants exposed to short days (SDs) occurred from meristems initiated after satisfaction of the cold requirement. Comparable buds on plants receiving no chilling during SDs remained inhibited, as did axillary meristems present during SDs. In contrast, runners formed by chilled, everbearing ‘Geneva’ plants originated from axillary meristems initiated prior to chilling but not from subsequent meristems. Chilling ‘Geneva’ plants during exposure to SDs removed the inhibition from existing axillary meristems and promoted runner formation. Runnering did not occur in activley growing ‘Geneva’ plants maintained under long days (LDs).

Open Access

Abstract

Three cultivars of greenhouse-grown apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh.) were fumigated for single, 4-hour exposures with ozone (O3) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 0.40 and 0.80 ppm. Fumigations were performed in a plexiglass chamber situated within a controlled environment walk-in growth chamber. All 3 cultivars responded to treatments in a similar manner. When applied separately both gases induced characteristic foliar injury. In general, apple trees were more sensitive to 0.40 ppm O3 than to 0.40 ppm SO2; but they responded similarly to 0.80 ppm O3 or SO2. Foliar injury, leaf abscission, and shoot growth reduction were greatest when 0.80 ppm O3 and 0.80 ppm SO2 were combined. The data showed a less-than additive response when the 2 pollutants were combined; a response due, in part, to the high amount of injury induced by single pollutants at these concentrations. All O3 and/or SO2 fumigations resulted in stomatal closure.

Open Access

Abstract

A 4-year study was conducted to compare vine growth and yield in ambient air with growth in air charcoal-filtered to remove ozone. Open top chambers, with and without charcoal filters, were placed over individual vines in a mature ‘Concord’ (Vitis labruscana, Bailey) vineyard. Vines growing in open top chambers, regardless of charcoal filtration, grew less, had delayed maturity of shoots, and delayed leaf senescence as compared to those not growing in chambers. Though chamber effect masked treatment effect on total vine productivity, charcoal filtration reduced oxidant stipple and increased fruit soluble solids. Year-to-year variability in severity of oxidant stipple may be related to seasonal rainfall and ambient ozone levels.

Open Access

Abstract

Performance of open-top chambers used for air pollutant effect studies on mature grapevines (Vitis labruscana Bailey cv. Concord) was evaluated. The chamber environment was characterized by somewhat higher air temperature and dew point and decreased light intensity and wind velocity compared with ambient conditions. Within the chambers, grapevines had slightly increased leaf temperature. No differences due to chambers were detected on vine stomatal resistance, leaf water potential, or the relationship between leaf temperature and incident radiation.

Open Access