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- Author or Editor: W. F. Campbell x
Evolution of hydrogen gas (H2) during N2 reduction in root nodules results in inefficient use of energy needed for N2 fixation. Cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were inoculated with Rhizobium strains with and without genes for uptake hydrogenase (Hup) activity. H2 evolution, acetylene reduction activity, and uptake hydrogenase (Hup) activity were assayed on the resulting nodules. The Hup– strains produced higher plant yields than the Hup+ strains. The +N controls produced significantly higher yields than the –N controls and plants inoculated with Rhizobium strains. Hydrogen uptake activity by Rhizobium strains was influenced by the cultivar characteristics. Expression of the plasmid-borne hup genes (pHU52) of Bradyrhizobium japonicum was modified by the host cultivar. The average nodule fresh weight and shoot and root dry weights of the cultivars significantly increased following inoculation with the transconjugant Hup+ Rhizobium strain. Thus, biological N2 fixation may be enhanced by selecting Rhizobium strains that are appropriately matched to the particular cultivar. Incorporation of transconjugant Hup+ genes can increase rhizobial activity.
Carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) and onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) were planted in Kidman silt loam immediately after DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), ethofumesate (2-ethoxy-2,3-dmydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranol methanesulfonate), linuron (3-(3,4-dichlo-rophyenyl)-l-methoxy-l-methylurea), napropamide (2-(a-naphthoxy)N,N-diethylpropiona-mide), or trifluralin (a,a,a-trifluoro-2,6 dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) had been soil incorporated. In a second experiment, carrot roots and onion bulbs were planted in a conventionally-prepared seed bed or among vigorously growing wheat plants (7 to 10 cm tall). DCPA, linuron, and oryzalin (3,5-dinitro-N 4,N 4-dipropylsulfanilamide) plus glyphosate (N-(phos-phonomethyl)glycine) were surface applied to these seedbeds after planting but prior to crop emergence. Methazole (2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-l,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5-dione) and nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether) were applied postemergence. Chemical treatments significantly altered the seed yields within the no-tillage method. Carrots grown in the tilled plots exhibited no effect of chemical treatments on seed yield. Comparison of tillage methods indicated a highly significant reduction in carrot seed yield relative to the no-tillage plots. Those on the non-weeded control and no-tillage plots showed a highly significant reduction in seed yield. Many of the onion bulbs from male-fertile lines failed to develop seedstalks in the plots sprayed with linuron and napropamide and those that did were delayed in development. Linuron and ethofumesate reduced the numbers of onion flowers per umbel. Onions grown in the tilled plots exhibited no effect of chemical treatments on seed yield. Those on the non-weeded control and no-tillage plots showed a highly significant reduction in onion seed yield. Comparison of tillage methods indicated a highly significant reduction in onion seed yield relative to the no-tillage plots.
We investigated the areas of water penetration and the anatomical structures of hilar regions of permeable and impermeable seed coats of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Results indicate that water can enter permeable seeds through the hilum, raphe, and micropyle. In impermeable seeds water cannot pass through any of these areas. Anatomical data confirm that there were no structural differences in the testae of permeable and impermeable seeds, but a noticeable difference was apparent in the hilar region. In permeable seeds the palisade layer did not connect evenly in the hilar canal. By contrast, the hilar canals of impermeable seeds had connected palisade layers that were uniformly coated with a cuticular layer. Micropylar openings were clearly visible in permeable seeds, but these openings were occluded and well covered with cuticle in impermeable seeds. Visible differences were evident in the raphe.
Gibberellic acid (GA) applied in late summer or fall delays subsequent loss of peel puncture resistance (PPR) and development of yellow peel color in many citrus cultivars. Our objective was to determine the optimal time to apply GA for increasing juice yield of `Hamlin' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Mature trees on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock were sprayed with ≈24 L of a solution of GA (45 g a.i./ha) and organo-silicone surfactant (Silwet, 0.05%). Trees were sprayed on 26 Aug., 9 Sept., 2 Oct. (colorbreak), or 13 Oct. 1997, or nonsprayed (control). Peel puncture resistance, peel color, and juice yield were evaluated monthly between Dec. 1997 and Mar. 1998. Fruit from trees sprayed with GA had peels with higher PPR and less yellow color than fruit of control trees for most of the harvest season. The effect of GA on PPR and peel color lasted about 5 months. Juice yield was usually numerically greater for GA-treated fruit than for nontreated fruit. Fruit treated with GA at color break had significantly greater juice yield when harvested in late February than fruit from control trees. Thus, GA applied at color break appears to be the most effective time for enhancing peel quality and juice yield of `Hamlin' oranges.
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) enhances turgidity and quality of postharvest sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., fruit. Mechanisms by which plasma membrane (PM) ATPase maintains the electrochemical gradient in cell turgor were studied in isolated PM vesicles isolated from tapwater-, CaCl2- and chelated amino acid-calcium-treated Montmorency sour cherry fruit. Electron microscopy and periodic-chromicphosphotungstic acid staining indicated 85-90% closed PM vesicles. Protein activity associated with the PM was four times higher in both Ca treatments than in untreated cherries. ATPase activity was insensitive to NO3 and NaN3, but inhibited by vanadate, indicating absence or low levels of tonoplast and mitochondrial ATPases. PM vesicles exhibited a pH jump in the presence of acridine orange (A493-530nm). Cherry fruit appeared to have a PM ATPase similar to that of other plant species. Generation of a positive membrane potential across the PM was dependent upon ATP.
An experiment was conducted to determine if gibberellic acid (GA; ProGibb, Abbott Labs) can be mixed with Aliette or Agri-Mek and oil to reduce application costs, without reducing GA efficacy, and if Silwet and Kinetic adjuvants enhance GA efficacy. Five tank mixes were tested along with a nonsprayed control. The tank mixes included: 1) GA, 2) GA + Silwet, 3) GA + Kinetic, 4) GA + Silwet + Aliette, and 5) GA + Silwet + Agri-Mek + oil. All compounds were applied at recommended concentrations. In September, ≈24 L of each tank mix was applied with a hand sprayer to mature `Hamlin' orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] on sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock. Peel puncture resistance (PPR), peel color, and juice yield (percent juice weight) were evaluated monthly between Dec. 1997 and Mar. 1998. On most sampling dates the fruit of treated trees had higher PPR and were less yellow in color than fruit from control trees. However, in Jan., fruit treated with GA + Silwet and GA + Kinetic had greater PPR than other treatments. In Feb., fruit treated with GA + Silwet + Agri-Mek + oil had the lowest PPR. The effect of the different tank mixes on juice yield was usually similar to the effect of the tank mixes on PPR and peel color. On 8 Jan. 1998, fruit from trees treated with GA alone yielded significantly more juice than fruit from control trees. On 24 Feb. 1998, fruit from trees treated with GA alone yielded more juice than fruit from the other treatments. Thus, GA efficacy is generally not reduced by these tank mixes, nor improved by adjuvants.
Measurable differences in length, width, and depth of seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), from normal and flat-podded “rogues” were observed. Selective milling removed more than half of the seeds that would have given rise to flat pods, resulting in faster and easier field roguing in subsequent crops. The method is suitable only for stock seed purification because of the high loss (60 to 90%) of normal seeds.
Abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism of 6-week-old seedlings of cool- and warm-season crops was determined after a 24-hr exposure to supra- and sub-optimal temperatures. Plants were grown at 25°C and then exposed to 10, 25, or 40°C. After a 24-hr exposure, free (FABA) and hydrolyzable (HABA) abscisic acid and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were measured in the plant tops by gas chromatography. Warm-season crops, exposed to 10°C exhibited elevated levels of FABA, HABA and DP A compared to those plants exposed to 25 or 40°C. Among cool-season crops, only peas had higher FABA and HABA levels at 40°C than at 10 or 25°C, while beets had lower levels of HABA at 25°C than at 10 or 40°C. DPA existed at much higher concentrations than FABA and HABA in all plants. The increases in ABA and DPA in warm-season crops exposed to 10°C are attributed to low temperature stress.
Electron micrographs of ‘Gleason Elberta’ peach flower buds, Prunus persica (L.). Stobes, during rest indicated only moderate metabolic activity prior to December 20. In the December 27 collection, however, a single membrane-bound body (microbody or lysosome) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were present. Also, the Golgi bodies (dictyosomes) were nearly mature. Heterochromatin disappeared on January 3. By the end of February the number of mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and vesicles had increased markedly. During the first week of March, large nucleopores were observed in the nucleus. These data indicated that bud cells were changing at cold temperatures during winter. Organellar changes were compared to the predicted date for end of rest (13).
Abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations were significantly higher in young leaves of N-deficient (stressed) plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) both at day 2 and day 7 after transfer to a N-free Hoagland's solution. In old leaves, N-deficiency significantly increased ABA concentrations after 2 days but not after 7 days.