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  • Author or Editor: W. E. Ballinger x
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Abstract

Blueberries can be handled in water if 10 mg/liter of captafol is added to the water and the berries are immersed for at least 30 minutes. Addition of 100 mg/liter and immersion for 3 or 10 minutes produced similar control of decay. Captafol controlled decay due to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [the imperfect stage of Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Shrenk] better than it did decay due to Alternaria and Botrytis spp.

Open Access
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Abstract

Sand culture experiments with many treatments offer opportunities to apply a solution to the wrong container or plant. Such errors may destroy the treatment differences and, therefore, the experiment. Often it is necessary to depend on untrained personnel for the routine day-after-day application of solutions; this increases chance for error. Therefore, a system of number-color-coding has proven of great value.

Open Access

Abstract

Since the techniques of column, paper, thin layer, and gas chromatography are playing a rapidly increasing role in horticultural laboratories and in the interests of horticulturists, two papers on chromatography technique are presented in this issue. W. E. Ballinger and Eleanor P. Maness of North Carolina State University offer an improvement in paper chromatography which has enabled them to materially increase laboratory productivity in the separation of anthocyanins from blueberries. M. Allen Stevens of Campbell Research Institute briefly, but concisely, surveys the principles of gas chromatography and illustrates several horticultural research potentials with this new medium.

Open Access

Abstract

Eighteen lines of Euvitis grapes in 1980, and 30 in 1981, were stored for 9 weeks at 0°C in 5.7-liter telescoping, corrugated cardboard shipping containers with polyethylene liners, with and without commercially available sulfur dioxide (SO2) generators (1 in 1980; 2 in 1981). Decay during storage without SO2 varied greatly among lines (2% to 81% in 1980 and 0% to 62% in 1981). The generator producing SO2 for the entire 9 weeks in 1981 eliminated decay of most grape lots. By comparison, the generators producing SO2 for only 2 weeks permitted 4 times as much decay. Two weeks of SO2, however, permitted only one-fifth as much decay as that associated with no SO2 during storage. Both generators reduced degradation of appearance and flavor of the grapes. The long-term generator was associated with more SO2 damage to the fruit than was the short-term generator. The lines varied widely in tolerance to SO2. SO2 damaged the fruit by entering openings in their surfaces caused by stem tears and cracks.

Open Access

Abstract

Nine cultivars/selections of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were stored for 49 days at O°C in 6 liter telescoping, corrugated-cardboard shipping containers with polyethylene liners, and 3 types of commercially available SO2 generators. Susceptibility to decay during storage varied greatly among selections (7 to 82% decay without SO2). The SO2 generators produced up to 29 ppm SO2 and all 3 types reduced decay. The genotypes also varied widely in their tolerance of SO2. Placement of newspaper in the shipping containers reduced the concentrations of SO2, reduced SO2 damage to the fruit by up to 74%, and had an inconsistent influence on the development of decay. Fruit of selection NC 67A015-17 appeared to be the best suited for long-term storage.

Open Access

Abstract

One hundred 2-year old ‘Wolcott’ blueberry plants were grown in sand culture with 5 levels each of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and fruited in 1962 and 1963 in the greenhouse. The content of each of the 5 nutrient-elements in the leaves varied widely. Level of N affected the number of leaves and fruit per plant (+, −), fruit size (−), acidity (−), and ripening date (+), and the fruit-to-leaf ratio (F/L) of the bush (+). Foliar levels of P greater than 0.40% were associated with foliar interveinal chlorosis and abscission; low levels of P were associated with few leaves, a high F/L, and low berry weight. Leaves containing between 0.28 and 0.36% K showed foliar deficiency symptoms of K. High K was associated with high fruit acidity. No effects of nutrition upon the keeping quality of fruit were noted. High F/L had a greater effect than treatments upon fruit and was related to late ripening, low soluble-solids, and small size of the berries. With bushes having a high F/L, fruit weight and soluble solids decreased as the harvest season progressed until the ratio was between 1 and 2; thereafter, soluble solids content increased. Content of soluble solids varied inversely with per cent of crop ripening at a given time until a F/L between 1 to 2 was reached.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Wolcott’ blueberries were harvested at 8 stages of development (small, deep green to overripe) on 3 dates in 1963 and on 4 dates in 1964 from 2 plantings in eastern North Carolina. As the fruit developed, per cent acid decreased while pH, per cent soluble solids, sugar (per cent of fresh weight and mg/berry), soluble solids/acid ratio (SS/A), anthocyanin content and berry weight increased. Acid content (mg/berry) increased during early stages but decreased rapidly during later stages of development. Anthocyanin content (mg/cm2 of berry surface) was significantly correlated with sugar/acid ratio and SS/A ratio. An increase in incidence of decay of 10 punctured or bisected fruit samples after 9 to 11 days at 70°F, or 21 days at 32° plus 6 days at 70°, was associated with an increase in ripeness. In culture solutions with acid and sugar levels paralleling those of fruit of various degrees of ripeness, growth of both Alternaria and Botrytis spp. decreased as the level of acid in culture solution increased. Thus, the acid composition of blueberry fruit appears to afford a mechanism of resistance to decay-producing organisms. This indicates a potential for selecting varieties with high-keeping quality through selection of clones high in acid. The increase in anthocyanin (Acy) content as berries develop indicates a potential means of sorting blueberries electronically, according to their Acy content.

Open Access

Abstract

Irrigation did not influence total yield, growth, or longevity of ‘Elberta’ or ‘Redhaven’ peach trees. Yields were depressed when N was reduced to 0.2 kg/tree (approx 1/2 recommended rate) with both cultivars. Increasing N above the recommended rate did not influence yield. Highest yields were obtained with lightest pruning level but fruit size was reduced. Random tree loss occurred with all treatments but was highest with low N rates.

Open Access

Abstract

Individual fruit pH, total acidity (AC as %), soluble solids (SS as %), and SS/AC ratios correlated significantly with anthocyanin contents of ‘Wolcott’, ‘Morrow’, ‘Jersey’, and ‘Tifblue’ blueberries as measured by light transmission (ΔOD740-800 nm). Fruit orientation with respect to the light path influenced readings. The relationships of the light transmission values to the quality indices differed among cultivars.

Open Access

Abstract

Regardless of season, location, harvest date, or size, ‘Wolcott’ blueberry fruits sorted with transmitted light according to their anthocyanin (ACY) contents were reasonably well separated for quality as expressed by pH, titratable acid (AC), soluble solids (SS) and the SS/AC ratio. Quality of fruits of the same ACY class differed according to cultivar (‘Wolcott’, ‘Berkeley’, and ‘Jersey’). AC content of the fruit decreased slightly during the season regardless of ACY class or cultivar. This consistent reduction in AC as the season progressed was accompanied by increases in the SS/AC ratios and development of decay. Location of harvest (farm to farm) influences SS somewhat. A long harvest interval produced a small but consistent effect on all quality parameters.

Open Access