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- Author or Editor: W. Douglas Hamilton x
The ability of young Myoporum laetum, Forst. f. trees to stand by themselves was improved by neither staking nor pruning them during their first 2 years in the landscape. Omitting these practices resulted in: 1) larger trunks at the ground, 2) trunks with greater taper, and 3) shorter tops. Taper of the trunks increased as the trees became older.
Studies were conducted in plastic foam trays in float tanks to investigate effects of aeration of the nutrient solution, tray management after seeding and addition of KNO3 fertilizer to the substrate media on tomato transplant growth. Aeration of the nutrient solution had no effect on rate of tomato seedling emergence or growth, even though dissolved O2 was higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks. Placing trays in the tanks immediately after seeding caused faster seedling emergence than either delaying placement in the tanks or stacking trays until emergence began. KNO3 at 20 g·kg dry Pro-Mix” media resulted in delayed initial emergence but no differences were found 7 days after planting. Initial tray treatments or addition of KNO3 to the media had no effects on final tomato transplant size.
Cider gum (Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. F.), Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), and camphor tree [Cinnamonium camphora (L.) J. Presl] were evaluated in a field study comparing the effects of herbicides on tree growth. Trees were planted on 13 May 1983 and treated on 20 May 1983, 10 Apr. 1984, and 4 Oct. 1984 with simazine, oryzalin, napropamide, and oxyfluorfen. Glyphosate was applied as a postemergence treatment in all basins on 20 Mar. 1984. None of the herbicides injured the trees. Trunk circumferencesin treated plots increased as much as 553% over untreated plots. All species showed a positive response to increasing weed control. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine); 3,5-dinitro-N4,N4-dipropylsulfanilamide (oryzalin); N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-propanamide (napropamide); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] is a highly perishable climacteric fruit, softening rapidly once ripening commences which may limit its marketability. In studies to determine the optimum cold storage temperature and maximum storage life of the fruit, pawpaw fruit were stored at -2, 2, and 6 °C for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and then ripened upon removal to ambient temperature. Through 4 weeks, fruit exhibited adequate firmness upon removal from cold storage, but at 8 and 12 weeks fruit held at 2 and 6 °C were very soft. Irrespective of storage temperature, at 8 weeks fruit showed a delay in a climacteric-like respiratory increase, and by 12 weeks a respiratory climacteric was not apparent. An ethylene climacteric was evident after all temperature and storage periods except those held at 6 °C for 12 weeks. Significant symptoms of cold injury were found by 8 weeks of 2 °C cold storage. In addition to a delayed respiratory climacteric, pawpaw fruit stored for 8 and 12 weeks exhibited flesh browning within 48 h of moving to ambient temperature. A change in fruit aroma volatile profile suggested injury might have been developing by 4 weeks of cold storage even though other symptoms were not evident. Immediately after harvest, methyl octanoate was the dominant volatile ester followed by methyl hexanoate. By 4 weeks of postharvest cold storage, ethyl hexanoate was the dominant ester followed by ethyl octanoate, but methyl octanoate production was still substantial. At 8 weeks, volatile ester production was generally lower with ethyl hexanoate the major volatile followed by ethyl octanoate. These symptoms indicate that pawpaw fruit can suffer cold injury during extended periods of cold storage.
Prior work indicated that volatile compounds produced by macerated strawberry fruit occurred at levels capable of affecting pathogen development. To determine if a less-severe injury, such as bruising, would alter the volatile profile of strawberry fruit, the headspace volatiles from ripe `Tribute' strawberry fruit were sampled with SPME fiber during the 15 min immediately following and from 75 to 90 min following application of a compression bruise. The compression bruise was applied with a force gauge, and fruit were kept in a closed bottle at room temperature during the study. Of the 14 major volatile products consistently produced by all fruit, acetate esters derived from hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexenal increased most, over 50%, in response to bruising during the first interval. During the later interval, bruised fruit produced over 50% more (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate than control fruit. Most notably, the ratio of levels of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate produced by bruised compared to control fruit were the highest among all 14 major volatiles, over 150% more after 15 min and 270% more at 90 min. Headspace levels of the 6-carbon acetate esters declined for both control and bruised fruit between 15 and 90 min, while levels of the other major volatiles increased. The other 11 volatile compounds were commonly identified aroma volatiles. Headspace levels of some of these were also higher from bruised than control fruit. In particular, headspace levels of ethyl butyrate were increased by bruising 13% after 15 min but over 100% after 90 min, the most of any volatile product other than (E)-2-hexenyl acetate.
Seedless table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Crimson Seedless were exposed to (E)-2-hexenal vapor during cold storage to determine its potential as a fumigant for long-term control of postharvest mold. Fruit were fumigated with 0.86 or 1.71 mmol (100 or 200 μL neat compound, respectively) (E)-2-hexenal per 1.1-L container for 2 weeks during 2 °C storage. Containers were moved to 20 °C storage after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for determination of mold incidence and berry quality over 12 days. The headspace concentration of (E)-2-hexenal, measured by gas chromatography, reached a maximum of 2.5 and 4.2 μmol·L–1 for 0.86 and 1.71 mmol per container, respectively, after 1 day and declined to <1 μmol·L–1 for both treatments by 14 days. Upon removal from cold storage at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the incidence of mold was significantly lower for (E)-2-hexenal–treated fruit. Control of mold by (E)-2-hexenal fumigation persisted through 12 days of 20 °C storage, even though mold generally increased in all treatments. The two levels of (E)-2-hexenal were similar in their suppression of mold. Fumigation did not affect O2 or CO2 concentrations within the containers, nor were fruit firmness or soluble solids content affected. Postharvest fumigation of seedless table grapes with the natural volatile compound (E)-2-hexenal shows promise for control of mold.
Some plant-derived natural volatile compounds exhibit antifungal properties and may offer an opportunity to control the causes of postharvest spoilage without affecting quality of, or leaving a residue on, fresh produce. The natural wound volatile (E)-2-hexenal has exhibited significant antifungal activity in earlier studies, but effects on spore germination and mycelial growth have not been separated, nor has the inhibitory mode of action been determined. To determine the efficacy of (E)-2-hexenal for control of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. spore germination and mycelial growth, and to examine the mode of action, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. Under in vitro bioassay conditions, spore germination was more sensitive to the compound than was mycelial growth. Vapor from 10.3 μmol of (E)-2-hexenal in a 120-mL petri dish completely inhibited spore germination. However, 85.6 μmol of (E)-2-hexenal was required to completely inhibit mycelial growth. Lower concentrations of the compound (5.4 and 10.3 μmol) significantly stimulated mycelial growth, especially when the volatile was added 2 days following inoculation. Mycelial growth did not occur as long as the vapor-phase concentration was 0.48 μmol·L-1 or greater. Light microscopy analysis indicated that a high concentration of volatile compound dehydrated fungal hyphae and disrupted their cell walls and membranes. Exposure of B. cinerea-inoculated and non-inoculated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit in 1.1-L low-density polyethylene film-wrapped containers to vapor of (E)-2-hexenal at 85.6 or 856 μmol (10 or 100 mL, respectively) per container for durations of 1, 4, or 7 days during 7 days of storage at 2 °C promoted the incidence of B. cinerea during subsequent shelf storage at 20 to 22 °C. Loss of fruit fresh mass and fruit firmness during storage at 22 °C was increased by (E)-2-hexenal treatment, but fruit total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and color (L, C, and H values) were not affected. Thus, maintenance of a high vapor-phasel level of (E)-hexenal, perhaps >0.48 μmol·L-1, may be necessary to inhibit mycelial growth and avoid enhancing postharvest mold problems, while significantly higher levels may be necessary to completely eliminate the pathogen.