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  • Author or Editor: W. D. Lane x
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Starch index and seed color are useful harvest indices for `Sunrise' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). Increases in starch index value (≈1.4 units per week) and percent brown seed color (≈27% per week) were linearly correlated with harvest time and paralleled the increase in percent ripe fruit. `Sunrise' was best picked, within a 1-week harvest window, at starch index values between 2.5 and 3.5 on a 0-9 scale, percent brown seed color of 30% to 50%, and flesh firmness of 69 to 73 N. Firmness loss was comparable to other apple cultivars during harvest (≈5 N per week) and during air or CA storage. However, `Sunrise' fruit lost 18 to 27 N firmness during a 7-d 20 °C poststorage shelf-life test, resulting in fruit that was well below 49 N, the minimal firmness for consumer acceptance. Fruit previously stored at 0 °C had a shelf-life of 3 to 4 d at 20 °C, even though the fruit was picked at the correct maturity and had 70 to 74 N firmness at the end of storage. To ensure good eating quality, fruit must be held continuously at 0 °C until consumption. Firmness loss during shelf-life tests was higher for fruit harvested at starch index values between 1.3 and 2.4 and held in 0 °C air for 3 to 12 d (13 to 24 N firmness drop) than for fruit left on the tree and harvested at starch index 2.9 (10 N firmness drop). Fruit held in storage for 1 to 3 months were susceptible to flesh browning, flesh breakdown, core browning, stem-end browning, and storage rots. Early-picked (starch index <2.4) fruit held in CA for 1 month developed skin disorders resembling those of CO2 injury and scald.

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Authors: and

Sweet cherry breeding started at Vineland and Summerland in 1915 and 1924 and has resulted in the naming and introduction of 11 and 18 cultivars, respectively. `Victor' and `Van' were the first cultivars named from Vineland and Summerland, respectively, in 1925 and 1944. `Van' has become a popular cultivar in North America and Europe. The main objective in these breeding programs has been to develop cultivars that produce large quantities of firm-fleshed, crack-free, flavorful, large, black cherries with a range of maturity dates to extend the season of harvest. In the 1960's, the development of self-fertile cultivars was added to the objective of the programs. Already several self-fertile cultivars and advanced breeding selections have been named and introduced from Canada. The programs have also contributed to the assignment of cultivars to different pollen-incompatibility groups and verification of pedigree of sweet cherry cultivars. The impact of these long-term breeding programs in Canada and abroad will be discussed in detail.

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Abstract

Skin color, size, and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage behavior of spur ‘McIntosh’ (Malus domestica cvs. Dewar, Macspur, Morspur, and Starkspur) and standard ‘McIntosh’ were evaluated over a 4-year period. ‘Starkspur’ had a slightly higher proportion of red skin color than did the other strains. Firmness at harvest was lower in ‘Dewar’ than in most strains and all spur strains were significantly softer than standard ‘McIntosh’ after 6 to 7 months of CA storage. No differences were found in acidity, but soluble solids after storage tended to be lower in the spur strains. Coreflush was lowest in ‘Macspur’ and highest in ‘Morspur’.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Shamrock’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a green apple nearly identical in appearance, texture, and taste to ‘Granny Smith.’ It differs from ‘Granny Smith’ by maturing 6 weeks earlier and by having a more favorable tree growth habit. It develops full maturity and good quality in northern tree fruit production areas where ‘Granny Smith’ does not mature before cold weather slows growth. ‘Shamrock’ is introduced to allow growers in northern areas to compete with ‘Granny Smith’ imported from production areas with long growing seasons. It also may extend the season for ‘Granny Smith’-type apples where ‘Granny Smith’ is presently grown.

Open Access

Abstract

The nectars of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), crab apple (M. baccata L. and M. floribunda Seib.), peach (Prunus persica L.), pear (Pyrus malus L.), and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were analyzed for sugar contents. ‘Skaha’ apricot was significantly higher in fructose, glucose, and sucrose than ‘Wenatchee Moorpark’ or ‘Tilton’. ‘Lambert’ sweet cherry was significantly higher in these sugars than ‘Van’ or ‘Stella’. Sugar levels were higher in ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Spartlett’ than ‘Anjou’. ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Red Delicious’ nectars were higher in the individual sugars than ‘Golden Delicious’. An appreciable range of values was found among the crab apples but the sugar content in some were comparable to those of apple.

Open Access

Fruit were studied to determine if anatomical and physiological features explain the difference in susceptibility to rain-induced cracking of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars Sue (resistant), Lapins (moderately resistant), and Van (susceptible). Water uptake as a percentage of fruit weight at cracking tended to be high in `Sue', medium in `Lapins', and low in `Van' and was related to the percentage of cherries remaining sound after 4 hours of immersion, suggesting that this trait is a factor in determining resistance. Mesocarp cells of `Sue' were more rectangular in section than those of the other cultivars. Skin elasticity and thickness of the cuticle did not explain resistance of `Sue' to cracking. Magnesium, copper, and phosphorus mineral contents were not related to cracking susceptibility, but the content of calcium, which influences cell wall integrity, in the epidermis of `Sue' was lower than in `Van'. Calcium content was not different in the hypodermal cells of the two cultivars. None of the anatomical features examined in this study explain the resistance to fruit cracking of `Sue'.

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Nodules associated with the main cortical vascular bundles in fruit of the `Gala' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) strains `Royal' and `Regal' were observed in several growing seasons. The nodules were found in 68% (n = 586) of the fruits examined, with a mean of 2.5 nodules per fruit. The nodules were first detected in developing fruit 2 months after bloom and were normally 1-2 mm in diameter by commercial harvest maturity. The nodules, like the vascular bundles, were pale green. They were inconspicuous at first, but became conspicuous and unattractive and changed to brown or red as the fruit became overmature. Nodules in the fruit of the `Gala' × `Splendour' hybrid `8S 27-2' were dark brown or red at picking maturity, and occurred with high frequency. Nodules were also observed in `Splendour', but were small, pale green, and infrequent in this cultivar. Microscopic examination of the nodules revealed that they typically contained a central cavity surrounded by a lignified wall with small pigmented cells outside the wall adjacent to the cortex. Low-frequency irrigation cycle times generally promoted the development of nodules in both `Gala' strains but nitrogen treatments did not affect nodule frequency in `Royal Gala'. Mean fruit nodule frequency tended to be higher, overall, in `Regal Gala' (3.9) than in `Royal Gala' (1.4).

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A protocol for micrografting shoot tips harvested from in vitro shoot cultures directly to transplanted rootstock plants in the greenhouse was developed. Shoot tips of the apple (Malus domestica) cultivars Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Fuji clone, Nagafu12, were harvested, stored in a water bath then prepared for grafting by cutting the stem immediately below the tip into a wedge shape leaving the tip approximately 3 mm (0.12 inch) long. The rootstock cultivar, Malling 9 (M.9) (M. domestica), was prepared by cutting into a young fast growing side branch to expose the cambium, creating a pocket into which the shoot tip was inserted. The cut section of the tip was oriented so as to contact the exposed rootstock cambium and was held in place by wrapping with a strip of pliable plastic film. Two weeks later the wrapping was loosened and the grafted branch cut back. Side branches of the rootstock were not removed until later in order to support rootstock growth. The scion shoots developed into nursery whips suitable for transplanting to a screen house or field after 2 months. The protocol proved to be a simple efficient way to rapidly grow nursery trees from tissue culture clones developed in genetic modification experiments and was used to propagate several hundred plants. Grafting success was often 100% but was reduced if quality of shoot tips was poor due to injury indicated by brown tip color. The protocol eliminates the steps of rooting, acclimatizing and growing shoots into plants to serve as a scion wood source.

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