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  • Author or Editor: W. C. Micke x
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Abstract

The original ‘Brooks’ cherry (Prunus avium L.) seedling was evaluated at the Wolfskill Ranch of the University of California, Davis from 1970 to 1985. Clones of the original seedling have been evaluated for fruit quality in Contra Costa County since 1978 and in Fresno County at the University's Kearney Agricultural Center since 1981. ‘Brooks’ registered its most outstanding performance at the Kearney Field Station.

Open Access

Abstract

Three new cultivars of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batch] are released for distribution. ‘Solano’ has a high-quality kernel and could be grown in combination with ‘Nonpareil’ for simultaneous bloom and sequential harvest. ‘Sonora’ has a high-quality kernel, blooms earlier than ‘Nonpareil’, and could be used as a substitute for or in combination with ‘Ne Plus Ultra’ and ‘Peerless’. ‘Padre’ is a high-yielding, late-blooming cultivar that could be planted together with or as a substitute for the ‘Mission’.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruits of ‘Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) were grown under differing radiant flux densities (rfd 400 700 nm) from 45 days post-bloom until harvest. The rfd 400 700 nm affected red fruit color, soluble solids, starch content and size, but not firmness, pH or total acidity at harvest or after 105 days of storage at −0.5°C. Levels of rfd 400 700 nm sufficient to enhance red color development in red sports of ‘Delicious’ were not necessarily sufficient to insure flesh quality.

Open Access

A replicated rootstock trial for almond was established in 1986 in the central San Joaquin Valley, a major almond growing area for this most widely planted tree crop in California. `Nonpareil', the major cultivar in California, was used for this trial with `Fritz' grown as the pollenizing cultivar. Two standard rootstocks for almond, `Nemaguard' and `Lovell' peach, were compared to two newer peach-almond hybrid rootstocks, `Bright's' and `Hansen'. After eight years both hybrid rootstocks produced significantly larger trees than the peach rootstocks, based on trunk cross-sectional area. Trees on hybrid rootstocks frequently produced greater yields than those on peach rootstocks; although, differences were not always significant. However, there were generally no significant differences in production per trunk cross-sectional area (yield efficiency). Thus, increased production by trees on hybrid rootstock was the result of larger tree size and not an inherent increase in productive efficiency of the tree itself. Since trees on hybrid rootstock should be planted further apart than those on peach, production per hectare should not be significantly increased, at least under good growing conditions as represented in this trial.

Free access

Six cross-incompatibility groups, which contain most of commercially important California almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batch], and their self-incompatibility (S) allele genotypes are identified. Incompatibility groups include `Mission' (SaSb), `Nonpareil' (ScSd), and the four groups resulting from the `Mission' × `Nonpareil' cross: (SaSc), (SaSd), (SbSc), and (SbSd), as represented by `Thompson', `Carmel', `Merced' and `Monterey', respectively. All seedlings from the `Mission' × `Nonpareil' cross were compatible with both parents, a result indicating that these two cultivars have no alleles in common. Crossing studies support a full-sib relationship for these progeny groups and the origin of both parents from common germplasm. Cultivars in these six groups account for ≈ 93% of present California production, a result demonstrating a limited genetic base for this vegetatively propagated tree crop.

Free access

Abstract

Establishment, shoot proliferation, root induction, and transplanting stages were accomplished with Prunus avium × P. cerasus cv ‘Colt’, ‘Dwarf Mahaleb’ (P. mahaleb L) (both vegetatively propagated rootstock cultivars) and seedling Mazzard sweet cherry (P. avium L) ‘46-1 Mazzard’, (P. avium L.), a clonal rootstock seed tree, could be established and multiplied by the same procedure. However, no rooting was obtained. Limited rooting was possible with seedling Mazzard trees < 3 years in age. It was concluded that the limiting factor in ‘46-1 Mazzard’ rooting was the mature status of the source material.

Open Access

Abstract

Ground application of urea increased yields of ‘Nonpareil’ almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) by increasing the number of flowers per tree rather than by increasing blossom receptivity and percentage fruit-set. Hand pollination of flowers on caged limbs indicated that blossom receptivity declined between 3 and 6 days after anthesis.

Open Access

Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) is a genetic disorder in almond, associated with nursery source selection. Previously (Kester, PASHS, 1968), the latent potential for BF (BFpot) was shown to be heritable but its phenotypic expression (BFexp) varied among individual seedlings of a populations as a function of age. Vegetative propagation perpetuates BFpot of individual propagules (Kester and Asay, JASHS, 1978b) but the subsequent age of BFexp within individual plants is a function of accumulated exposure to high summer temperature and growth (Kester and Asay, JASHS 1978a). A recent 7-year “somatic heritability” study of 12 commercial nursery sources (Kester et al., HortScience 1998abst) portrays the total range of variability of BFpot and BFexp within the entire `Carmel' almond clonal population and includes a pattern of BF increase in consecutive vegetative propagation cycles that mimics patterns produced by phase change (i.e., juvenile > mature) phenomena (Hartmann et al., 1997). Although phase change potential is heritable in seedling populations, phase change expression is not (Kester, HortScience 1983). Furthermore phase changes can be reversed under particular conditions during consecutive vegetative propagations (Hartmann et al., 1997). In contrast, evidence shows that BF produces permanent changes in genotype that are heritable and irreversable. High correlations exist between BFpot of individual source blocks, individual trees and individual budsticks and the age and severity of BFexp in progeny trees. The apparent continuous change in BFpot and BFexp within clones appears to be the pattern of expression of different populations of increasingly defective (?) somatic cells that result from consecutive sequences of change during annual cycles of growth and generations of vegetative propagation.

Free access

Abstract

Mature almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb] trees growing on light-(Delhi sand) and heavy-textured (Yolo silty clay loam) soils were fertilized with 15N-depleted ammonium sulfate at different times during the year to permit direct measurement of fertilizer N within the trees. The distribution of fertilizer N between vegetative and reproductive organs was monitored during both the year of application, 1980, and the subsequent year. The later that fertilizer N was applied during the season, the less fertilizer N was recovered in the fruit and leaves that year, and the greater its N contribution to these organs was the following year. Isotopic labeling of fruit and leaves appeared to be relatively unaffected by soil texture during the year of fertilizer application. During the subsequent year, however, the recovery of fertilizer N by fruit and leaves was 2-fold greater on the heavy-textured soil than on the light-textured soil. Recovery of labeled N in fruit was relatively low on both soil types following application of fertilizer during the dormant period. Isotopic N was recovered in fruit in both 1980 and 1981 and constituted about 20% to 28% of fruit N at most. About 25% of the applied N was removed in the fruit on the heavy-textured soil over a 2-year period. Up to 1 kg N per tree was removed annually in the harvested fruit.

Open Access