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Hack A. Wilson, Victor A. Khan, and Clauzell Stevens

A field study was conducted on two cultivars of potatoes ('Atlantic' and 'Frito-Lay 795') on four row covers (clear and white slitted, VisPore and spunbonded polyester) at Charleston, Missouri.. There were significant interactions in the sub-plot (row covers × varieties) and sub-subplot (varieties × flower treatments) for grade A numbers of potatoes. Total numbers of potatoes for 'Atlantic' and 'Frito-Lay 795' cultivars as influenced by flower removal and row cover treatments showed significant interactions of row covers × varieties and varieties × flower treatmants. Yield of cwt/acre of grade A potatoes for both cultivars as influenced by flower removal and row cover treatments showed a significant interaction between row covers × varieties. There are genetic differences among potato cultivars in response to flower removal. Cultivar response to row covers were also different based on genetic makeup. Clear and spunbonded polyester were superior to other types of row covers for grade A numbers and yield of potatoes.

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Mack A. Wilson, Victor A. Khan, and Clauzell Stevens

Several plastic mulches [clear, black, IRT-76 (green), and ALOR (brown)] were used in combination with four row covers [(clear and white slitted), spunbonded polyester and VisPore]. The total numbers and marketable numbers per 1000/ha were highest with the clear and IRT-76 mulches without the use of row covers, respectively. There was a significant orthagonal comparison interaction with the clear & IRT-76 mulches vs. black & ALOR mulches. A significant orthogonal comparison interaction was observed with total yield with row covers vs. no row cover, mulch vs. control, clear and IRT-76 vs. black & ALOR, clear vs. IRT-76, and black vs. ALOR. Marketable yield showed a significant interaction with orthogonal comparison with row covers vs. no row cover and clear & IRT-76 vs. black & ALOR.

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Mack A. Wilson, Victor A. Khan, and Clauzell Stevens

Four types of row covers were evaluated on two cultivars of potatoes (`Atlantic' and Frito-Lay 795') at Charleston, Missouri on sandv loam entisol. Row covers used were spunbonded polyester, clear and white slitted and VisPore. Significant interactions occurred in the sub-plot (row cover × varieties) and sub-subplots (varieties × flower treatments) for numbers of grade A potatoes. The total numbers of potatoes for 'Atlantic' and 'Frito-Lay 795' cultivars as influenced by flower removal and row cover treatments showed significant interactions of row covers × varieties and varieties × flower treatments. Yield of grade A potatoes for both cultivars as influenced by flower removal and row cover treatments showed a significant interaction between row covers × varieties. Genetic differences occurred among potato cultivars in response to flower removal. cultivar response to row covers were also different based on genetic makeup. Clear and spunbonded polyester were superior to other types of row covers for grade A numbers and yield of potatoes.

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Mack A. Wilson, Michael T. Aide, and Victor A. Khan

Four row covers were evaluated on fall production of `Packman' broccoli and `Gourmet' cabbage at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Row covers used were spunbonded polyester, insolar and clear slitted polyethylene and VisPore. The mean afternoon soil temperature for row covers were higher than the bare soil control. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to head size, total numbers and yield of marketable broccoli. The number of broccoli heads per thousand between the bare soil control vs. row cover treatments were significantly different. Data for number of broccoli heads per thousand and marketable yield (Kg/Ha) were significant among row covers. Marketable yield (Kg/Ha) was significant among row covers for `Gourmet' cabbage.

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Mack A. Wilson, Victor A. Khan, and Clauzell Stevens

An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of manure and fertilizer, with and without solarization, on the growth of marigolds. Average plant height was significantly greater in media that was solarized and covered with a plastic film to retain heat. Leaf length was significantly greater in amended media with fertilizer application. Plants grown in covered media produced significantly more flower buds than those grown in noncovered media, while flower numbers were significantly greater for fertilized plants. Plant fresh and dry weights were significantly affected by covering the media during solarization and the application of fertilizer. Media amended with manure significantly affected plant fresh weight only. Flower size showed significant interactions between all factors evaluated in this study.

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Clauzell Stevens, Victor A. Khan, Theresa Okoronkwo, Ah-Yin Tang, Mack A. Wilson, John Lu, and James E. Brown

Soil polarization for 98 days in 1985 resulted in a 91% reduction of weeds present in collard greens (Brassica oleracea acephafa L.) plots during 1986. Soil solarization was more effective in controlling weeds in collard green plots when compared to an application of Dacthal-75W herbicide in nonsolarized plots. Collard green plants grown in solarized soil showed an increase in yield and other growth responses. Soil samples from the rhizosphere of plants grown in solarized soil showed higher population levels of bacteria and thermotolerant fungi than from nonsolarized soil. There were significant negative responses in marketable yield and root growth of collard greens and in soil microflora in solarized soil in response to Dacthal-75W herbicide application. Chemical name used: dimethyltetrachloroterephthalate (Dacthal-75W).

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Victor A Khan, C. Stevens, T. Mafolo, C. Bonsi, J.Y. Lu, E.G. Rhoden, M. A. Wilson, M. K. Kabwe, and Y. Adeyeye

TU-82-155 and `Georgia-Jet' early maturing. `Carver II'. TU-1892 and `Rojo-Blanco' late maturing sweepotato cultivars were evaluated in the field for: leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate, foliage crop growth rate (FCGR), storage roots crop growth rate (RCGR) and alpha a (the mean relative growth rate in dry wt to the mean relative growth rate in leaf area over a time interval) or the partitioning of assimilates. A split plot design was used and plants were sampled at 6, 8, 11 and 16 wk after transplanting. The results from study showed that LAI reached maximum development 8 and 12 wk after transplanting for early and late maturing cultivars, respectively. All cultivars irrespective to maturity groups showed a reduction in net assimilation rate 6 wk after transplanting while FCGR for early maturing cultivars gradually declined 6 wk after transplanting and varied among late maturing cultivars. `Carver II' showed increases in FCGR up to 11 wk after transplanting then rapidly declined while `Rojo-Blanco' and TU-1892 began to decline 8 and 6 wk after transplanting, respectively. RCGR showed rapid increases (100 g.m /area/week) and (150 g/m /area/week) for early and late maturing cultivars beginning 6 wk after transplanting and this increase continued until the 12th and 8 th wk after transplanting for early and late maturing cultivars, respectively. Cultivars from both maturity groups began to produce surplus assimilates (Alpha a) 6 wk after transplanting. which coincided with the rapid increases in RCGR at the same time. Thus indicating that storage root enlargement begins after the plant had accumulated a surplus of assimilates.