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  • Author or Editor: Veronica A. Hutchinson x
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Cuttings of herbaceous annual bedding plants must be rooted in late winter and early spring when ambient outdoor photosynthetic daily light integrals (DLIs) are at seasonally low levels. We evaluated the effect of DLI during root development on growth, morphology, and quality of nine popular vegetatively propagated annual bedding plant species. Cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia Benth. ‘AngelMist White Cloud’, Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip. ‘Madeira Cherry Red’, Diascia barberae Hook. f. ‘Wink Coral’, Lantana camara L. ‘Lucky Gold’, Nemesia fruticans (Thunb.) Benth. ‘Aromatica Royal’, Osteospermum ecklonis (DC.) Norl. ‘Voltage Yellow’, Scaevola L. hybrid ‘Blue Print’, Sutera cordata Roth. ‘Abunda Giant White’, and Verbena Ruiz ×hybrida ‘Aztec Violet’ were harvested and propagated in a glass-glazed greenhouse with 23 °C air and substrate temperature set points. After callusing (≈5 mol·m−2·d−1 for 7 days), cuttings of each species were placed under one of three different fixed-woven shade cloths providing ≈38%, 61%, or 86% shade or no shade with 16 h of supplemental light for 14 days. There were no clear trends across species for stem length in response to DLI. Stem caliper of Argyranthemum, Diascia, and Nemesia increased by 35%, 119%, and 89%, respectively, as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Depending on species, total, shoot, and root dry mass increased by 64% to 465%, 50% to 384%, and 156% to 1137%, respectively, as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. The quality index, an objective, integrated, and quantitative measurement of rooted cutting quality, increased for all species by 176% to 858% as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Our results indicate that providing a DLI of ≈8 to 12 mol·m−2·d−1 after callusing increases both growth and quality of rooted cuttings.

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Vegetatively propagated bedding plants are produced during the late winter and early spring when outdoor photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) is low, especially in northern latitudes. Our objective was to quantify how propagation DLI influences subsequent growth and development of annual bedding plants. Cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia Benth. ‘AngelMist White Cloud’, Nemesia fruticans (Thunb.) Benth. ‘Aromatica Royal’, Osteospermum ecklonis (DC.) Norl. ‘Voltage Yellow’, and Verbena ×hybrida Ruiz ‘Aztec Violet’ were harvested and propagated in a glass-glazed greenhouse. After callusing (≈5 mol·m−2·d−1 for 7 days), cuttings of each species were placed under one of three different fixed-woven shadecloths providing ≈38%, 61%, or 86% shade or no shade with 16 h of supplemental light for 14 days. Rooted cuttings were then transplanted into 11-cm containers and grown in a common greenhouse of 21 ± 1 °C and DLI of ≈12 mol·m−2·d−1 to identify any residual effects on subsequent growth and development during the finish stage. As DLI during propagation increased, time to first open flower decreased for Angelonia, Nemesia, Osteospermum, and Verbena. For example, time to flower for Angelonia and Osteospermum was hastened by 23 and 19 days, respectively, as DLI during propagation increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Our research can be used to predict growth and flowering under varying propagation DLIs for the cultivars of Angelonia, Nemesia, Osteospermum, and Verbena in the study.

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