Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd breeding lines (THMC 113, THMC 143, THMC 153, THMC 167, and THMC 170) were selected at the World Vegetable Center for resistance to a local isolate of Px in Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand. We evaluated the resistance potential of these five inbred lines against local isolates of Px at 12 locations in five Asian countries. Plants were inoculated with the respective local Px isolate 15 and 30 days after transplanting and additional Px-infected plants of the inoculated control were interplanted throughout each test. Plants were rated 60 days after transplanting for CPM reaction using a 0 (no evidence of infection) to 5 (>75% infection evident on individual leaves) disease severity scale. THMC 153 and THMC 167 were resistant to the local race of Px in all locations, whereas THMC 143 was observed resistant in all test locations except one in China. THMC 113 was resistant in each location except one in India. THMC 170 was susceptible in three locations in India. The multilocation tests revealed four unique Px races on bitter gourd in different Asian countries and sources of resistance for breeding CPM-resistant bitter gourd cultivars. Six strains of Px isolated from other cucurbits (Cucumis and Cucurbita) and representing five melon CPM races were unable to infect the susceptible M. charantia accession THMC 144 and the five resistant breeding lines, indicating pathotype differences between them and an isolate of M. charantia origin typed as race 1 on melon. THMC 143 and THMC 167, which originated from India, exhibited good yield potential in trials conducted in Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Bangladesh.