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- Author or Editor: Valeria Sigal Escalada* x
To determine if apple cultivars vary in their response to aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and heat treatment, alone or combined, postharvest ripening traits and storability of treated Lodi, Senshu, Red Delicious and Fuji have been studied. An aqueous solution of AVG was applied 4 weeks before harvest of each cultivar at 124 g·ha-1 a.i. Control and AVG-treated fruit were heated at 38 °C for 4 days. Fruit were ripened at ambient temperature immediately harvest and treatment, or after storage at 4 °C for 30 days. AVG reduced firmness loss in all but Fuji apples immediately after harvest, and that effect was maintained in Senshu and Red Delicious apples after 30 days in cold storage. All AVG-treated fruit showed a reduction in respiration rate and ethylene production immediately after harvest as well as after removal from cold storage. Heat treatment alone prevented firmness loss in Senshu and Red Delicious cultivars, and slightly reduced respiration rate of Lodi and Senshu apples. Ethylene production was clearly lower in heated compared to non-heated fruit in Senshu, Red Delicious and Fuji. After cold storage, AVG and heat treatments combined decreased flesh firmness loss of Lodi apples, reduced respiration in Lodi and Fuji apples, and highly repressed ethylene production of Red Delicious and Fuji fruit. Overall, AVG seemed to have a stronger effect on the measured ripening traits, and its combination with heat treatment improved fruit quality of cold-stored Lodi apples and reduced ethylene production the most for all but Lodi.
Both aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) are useful tools for managing apple fruit ripening, and their impacts on apple volatile production have been independently assessed. In this work, their combined effect, as might occur in commercial production and postharvest storage, on ‘Royal Gala’ apple volatile production at harvest and after air storage was compared with the effect of each alone. An aqueous solution of AVG was applied to ‘Royal Gala’ apple trees 4 weeks before the normal harvest date (H1) at 124 g·ha−1/a.i. in 2004 and 2005. Control and AVG-treated fruit were treated at H1 or after harvest of AVG fruit 2 weeks later (H2) for 20 h at 30 °C with 1-MCP at a final headspace concentration of 1 μL·L−1. Fruit were ripened for 7 d at room temperature immediately after harvest and treatment or after treatment and then cold storage at 4 °C for 6 or 12 weeks. Peel and cortex tissue of control and AVG plus 1-MCP-treated fruit was provided with butanol or hexanol and ester production was quantified. The combination of AVG plus 1-MCP was more effective in reducing internal ethylene concentration than either alone. Both total volatile production and that of the major individual esters, including hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, and 2-methylbutylacetate, which are considered key constituents of ‘Gala’ aroma, were consistently repressed by the combination of AVG plus 1-MCP after harvest and up to 12 weeks of cold storage. The effects of AVG plus 1-MCP were evident even with H2 fruit when the effects of AVG alone on fruit ripening were at least partially lost. Because alcohol–acyl transferase activity was unaffected by AVG plus 1-MCP, AVG plus 1-MCP-treated peel and cortex samples had similar total ester production when they were provided butanol or hexanol. Total alcohols showed recovery in most treatments except AVG plus 1-MCP, so precursor availability was likely the major factor limiting ester production. The results indicated a sustained adverse effect of the AVG plus 1-MCP treatment on aroma volatile production that could impact consumer acceptability.
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) is a key enzyme in apple fruit converting sorbitol into fructose. SDH activity in `Fuji' apple was reported to increase close to harvest, perhaps as part of the ripening process. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) is used to delay fruit ripening and prevent fruit drop, though its effect on sorbitol metabolism is not known. To determine if the late season increase in SDH activity is common among apple cultivars and if AVG use affects SDH expression and activity, AVG was applied to `Lodi', `Redchief Delicious', and `Red Fuji' trees 4 weeks before harvest. Control and AVG-treated fruit were collected 1 week prior to, at, and 1 week after the normal harvest date for assessment of ethylene production over time after harvest and SDH presence and activity at harvest. Ethylene production in control fruit increased after harvest and AVG reduced it in all cultivars. `Redchief Delicious' fruit had the highest ethylene production of the treated samples. The levels of SDH activity in controls were similar across dates for `Redchief Delicious' and showed no consistent pattern in the other cultivars. `Redchief Delicious' and `Red Fuji' showed the highest and lowest levels of SDH activity, respectively. AVG did not affect SDH activity in `Redchief Delicious', and substantially increased SDH activity in `Red Fuji' on each of the three harvest dates, and, in `Lodi', only 1 week after normal harvest. SDH presence was confirmed through immunoblotting for all cultivars and harvest dates. Overall, fruit with the greatest reduction in ethylene production in response to AVG also showed changes in SDH activity.
Our goal was to determine how aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) interact to influence postharvest storability and volatile production of `Gala' apple. In 2004 and 2005, AVG was applied to `Gala' apple trees 4 weeks before harvest. After harvest, control and AVG-treated fruit were treated for 20 h at 30 °C with MCP, and fruit were ripened at ambient temperature immediately after harvest, after MCP treatment, or after storage at 4 °C for 6 and 12 weeks. For both seasons, control fruit reached the highest internal ethylene concentration (IEC) during ripening at ambient temperature immediately after harvest. After storage, control fruit had very low IEC in 2004, but the highest in 2005. In general, the combined treatment repressed ethylene production the most for all harvest dates and lengths of storage. AVG plus MCP-treated fruit consistently had the highest flesh firmness (FF) but also had the lowest total volatile production (TVP) by flesh or peel after 6 and 12 weeks in cold storage following both harvest dates. The activity of alcohol acyltransferase was affected by the treatments, but could not explain all the variation found in TVP. TVP was lower for flesh than peel of control and treated fruit, but feeding alcohol substrates to the fruit resulted in a significant increase in TVP, regardless of tissue type or treatment. The results indicate that the combination of AVG plus MCP maintained apple fruit FF in cold storage better than the treatments used alone, but also substantially reduced TVP. Substrate availability seemed to be the most limiting factor affecting TVP by flesh and peel of `Gala' apples treated with AVG plus MCP.
The impact of heat plus aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) treatments alone or in combination on ripening of four apple cultivars has been studied. A solution of AVG was applied to ‘Lodi’, ‘Senshu’, ‘Redchief Delicious’, and ‘Red Fuji’ apple trees ≈4 weeks before normal harvest at 124 g·ha−1 a.i. After harvest, half of each group of control and AVG-treated fruit was heated at 38 °C for 4 days and then stored at 4 °C for 30 days. After cold storage, AVG and heat individually suppressed ethylene production of ‘Senshu’ and ‘Redchief Delicious’ but not of ‘Lodi’ or ‘Red Fuji’. The combination of AVG with heat treatment reduced ethylene production the most consistently in each cultivar except ‘Lodi’, suggesting some additive effect of the treatments. The respiration rate after cold storage was not consistently affected by any treatment. AVG alone and with heat maintained firmness of ‘Lodi’, AVG plus heat maintained it in ‘Senshu’, but neither ‘Redchief Delicious’ nor ‘Red Fuji’ firmness responded to the treatments. AVG-treated ‘Lodi’ and ’Redchief Delicious’ fruit, heated fruit of all cultivars, and AVG plus heat in all had lower titratable acidity than controls after cold storage. Although there were no effects of any treatment on fruit soluble solids concentration, the combined treatment increased the soluble solids:titratable acidity ratio of all cultivars, although heat or AVG alone had no consistent effects. Total ester production by ‘Redchief Delicious’ peel tissue after cold storage was reduced 44% by AVG and 70% or more by heat and AVG plus heat. There were no differences in peel alcohol acyltransferase activity among the treatments, supporting the hypothesis that substrate availability was the limiting factor for ester synthesis in treated fruit. Overall, heat plus AVG treatment did not provide any advantage over each alone for maintaining apple fruit quality during short-term cold storage.