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  • Author or Editor: Toshiya Yamamoto x
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Doubled haploids can improve the efficiency of breeding and genetic study in apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). Seventeen homozygous genotypes were obtained by in vitro anther culture from ‘Senshu’ apple. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the ploidy level of the anther-derived plantlets was diploid. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis determined the origin and homozygous status of the anther-derived plantlets. The results of S-RNase polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-digestion analysis reinforced the homozygous state. The morphological characteristics and reproductive potential of the doubled haploids were investigated. It is especially interesting that one of the doubled haploids derived from anther culture had fertile pollen grains (rate of in vitro germination was 20.6%–33.0%), and several progenies were obtained from the cross between ‘Prima’ apple and the doubled haploid. The hybridism of these seedlings was confirmed by SSR analysis. Furthermore, the female gametes of the doubled haploid showed slight fertility. Thus, this doubled haploid will be valuable for breeding and genetic studies.

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We examined the genetic diversity and relatedness among apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars in Japan. The 42 apple cultivars, including major cultivars in Japan, were divided into five groups based on SSR genotypes. Most economically important cultivars belong in three groups: Fuji-Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Jonathan groups, and their genetic backgrounds seemed to be narrow. We also investigated the parent-offspring relationships of nine apple cultivars. `Jonathan', `Fuji', and `Rero 11' were identified as the respective paternal parents of three cultivars described as having unknown paternal parents (i.e., `Akagi', `Ambitious', and `Hokuto'). `Starking Delicious', `Senshu', and `Golden Delicious', rather than `Ralls Janet', `Hatsuaki', and `Indo', seemed to be the paternal parents of `Kinsei', `Kiou', and `Mellow', respectively. `Carolina Red June' was excluded as a paternal parent of `Ranzan'. Both attributed parents of `Scarlet' (`Akane' and `Starking Delicious') were excluded, and it was suggested that `Fuji' was used as either a maternal or a paternal parent of `Scarlet'. `Jonathan' rather than `McIntosh' seems to be a maternal parent of `Yukari'.

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As the parents of the some of the apple cultivars were unknown and others were uncertain, we investigated the parent-offspring relationships of eight apple cultivars by S-RNase analysis and SSR markers. The paternal parent of `Hida' was identified as `Golden Delicious', not the previously mentioned `Orin'. It was indicated that `Ryoka No Kisetsu' and `Korin' showing identical SSR genotype are likely sports of `Fuji'. `Fuji', rather than `Toko', seemed to be a maternal parent of `Kotoku', but was not a paternal parent of `Orei', `Starking Delicious', `Nero 26', `Empire', or `Aori 3'. Previously mentioned `Mutsu', `Indo', and `Shin Indo' were excluded as paternal parents of `Hokuto'. `Tsugaru' and `Jonathan' and were identified as the respective paternal parents of three cultivars described as having unknown paternal parents, i.e., `Aika No Kaori', `Yoko', and `Tsugaru'.

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