The effects of terbacil herbicide on strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Honeoye') yield and black root rot disease were determined in field plots at two locations in Connecticut over 4 years. Terbacil treatments at up to four times the maximum label dosage caused some temporary foliar chlorosis but did not affect the health of structural or perennial roots and associated feeder roots. Development of secondary root growth (perennial roots) was not influenced by terbacil. Terbacil had no effect on the quantity of lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip & Schur. Stek.] extracted or the amount of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and McKeen isolated from strawberry roots. At both locations, R. fragariae was common on plant roots by the fourth year. Terbacil treatments did not affect strawberry yields in terms of number or weight of ripe berries per plot. Our results indicate that terbacil does not contribute to black root rot or decreased yields in `Honeoye' strawberry. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-methyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (terbacil).
Todd L. Mervosh and James A. LaMondia
John F. Ahrens, Larry J. Kuhns, Tracey L. Harpster, and Todd L. Mervosh
In 1995, Monsanto Chemical Co. announced that they would replace Roundup herbicide with Roundup Pro for use in the ornamentals and turf markets. Both products contain 4 lb a.i./gal glyphosate, but Roundup Pro contains a more-active surfactant. Though Roundup was labeled as a nonselective herbicide, dormant conifers were found to have varying degrees of resistance to it. Directed sprays that hit the lower two-thirds of many dormant conifers became common practice in the industry. Because the surfactant in Roundup Pro increases the activity of the glyphosate, a series of trials were initiated in 1996 in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Vermont in which four glyphosate formulations were applied to a variety of dormant conifers. Roundup, Roundup Pro, Glyfos, and Accord (with and without surfactant) were applied either over-the-top or as directed sprays to the lower 18 inches of the plants at rates between 0.5 and 3 lb a.i./acre. Plants treated included globe arborvitae; upright yew; Canadian hemlock; Colorado, Norway and white spruce; Douglas fir; eastern white pine; and balsam, Canaan, and Fraser fir. In a preliminary study, injury to the spruces in the form of dwarfed and chlorotic new growth was primarily associated with fresh pruning wounds. Accord plus surfactant and Roundup Pro injured more spruces than Roundup, but injury was slight. No injury was observed in upright yew with any formulation at rates up to 0.75 lb a.i./acre. Injury to arborvitae was greatest with Accord plus surfactant, intermediate with Roundup Pro, and least with Roundup. Results are inconclusive at this time, but the results of additional studies available early in the next growing season.will be presented.