Anti-gibberellin plant growth regulators (PGRs) not only affect cell elongation, but other biochemical processes. The experimental PGR A-1699 DF was evaluated for efficacy of height and width control as well as effect on flower petal pigmentation. While the active ingredient in A-1699 DF has proven effective for height control on several crops, that was not observed on Impatiens `Accent Cranberry' in this study. However, A-1699 DF did affect flower petal pigmentation. A-1699 DF likely inhibited anthocyanin production that resulted in light pink versus cranberry flower petals observed on the control, Paczol, and B-Nine/Cycocel PGR applications.
Sophia Kamenidou, Todd J. Cavins, and Stephen Marek
In greenhouse production, most floricultural crops are cultivated in soilless substrates, which often supply limited amounts of plant-available silicon (Si). The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Si supplementation on greenhouse-produced ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. ‘Ring of Fire’). Potassium silicate (KSiO3) substrate incorporation or weekly substrate drenches, sodium silicate (NaSiO3) foliar applications, and rice husk ash substrate incorporation were used as Si supplements. Silicon content of Si-treated plants increased compared with untreated controls. Depending on the source and concentration of silicon supplied, several horticultural traits were improved as a result of Si supplementation. Thick, straight stems, increased flower and stem diameters, and increased height were observed in some of the treatments, upgrading sunflower quality compared with untreated controls. However, growth abnormalities were observed when concentrations of 100 and 200 mg·L−1 Si were supplied as KSiO3 substrate drenches. In these treatments, plants appeared stunted with deformed flowers and were delayed in flowering. Consequently, Si supplementation effects on greenhouse-produced sunflowers can vary from beneficial to detrimental depending on the applied source and concentration.
Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole
Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Roth., Hyacinthus orientalis L. `Gypsy Queen', Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. `Music Hall', N. pseudonarcissus `Tahiti', Tulipa gesneriana L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. gesneriana `White Emperor' bulbs were given 0 or 6 weeks of preplant 5 °C cold treatment and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for 2 years after planting. Preplant 5 °C cold pretreatment reduced percentage of Tulipa `White Emperor' bulbs that flowered but did not affect the percentage of bulbs that flowered for the other species. Cold pretreatment also delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep. The 45-cm planting depth reduced bulb flowering percentage or eliminated plant emergence. Increasing planting depth increased days to anthesis for all cultivars in both years. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in year 2 for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica, but did not influence percentage of bulbs flowering for any cultivars. For all cultivars perennialization was low regardless of treatment as less than 30% of bulbs survived to the 2nd year.
Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole
Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' and Lupinus hartwegii Lindl. `Bright Gems' were grown in 8- or 16-h initial photoperiods, transplanted when 2-3, 5-6, or 8-9 true leaves developed, and placed under 8-, 12-, or 16-h final photoperiods. The lowest flowering percentage for `Champion Blue' (<1%) and `Champion Pink' (16%) resulted from plants grown in the 8-h photoperiod continuously. One hundred percent flowering occurred when Campanula were grown in the 16-h final photoperiod, indicating that `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' are long-day plants. Plants grown initially in the 8-h and finished in the 16-h photoperiod had the longest stems. Stem diameter was generally thickest for plants grown in the 8-h compared with the 16-h initial photoperiod. However, the 8-h initial photoperiod delayed anthesis compared with the 16-h initial photoperiod. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' plants transplanted at the 2-3 leaf stage from the 16 hour initial to the 8-h final photoperiod had flowering percentages of 64% and 63%, respectively; however, when transplanted at the 8-9 leaf stage, plants were fully mature and 100% flowering occurred indicating that all plants were capable of flowering. In year 2, plants receiving high intensity discharge (HID) supplemental lighting during the 16-h initial photoperiod reached anthesis in 11 fewer days compared with plants not receiving HID supplemental lighting. High profits were obtained from Campanula grown in the 8-h initial photoperiod and transferred at 5-6 true leaves into the 16-h final photoperiod. Lupinus hartwegii plants had a high flowering percentage (96% to 100%) regardless of photoperiod or transplant stage. The 16-h final photoperiod decreased days to anthesis compared with the 8- or 12-h final photoperiod indicating that L. hartwegii is a facultative long-day plant. Increasing length of final photoperiod from 8- to 16-h increased stem length. Juvenility was not evident for Lupinus in this study. In year 2, Lupinus cut stems were generally longer and thicker when given HID supplemental lighting, especially when grown in the 8- or 12-h final photoperiod. Supplemental lighting also reduced days to anthesis. Highest profits were generally produced from Lupinus plants grown with supplemental HID lighting (during the initial photoperiod) until 8-9 true leaves had developed.
Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole
Narcissus L. `Music Hall', N. `Tahiti', Tulipa L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. `White Emperor' bulbs were precooled at 5 °C for 0 or 5 weeks and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep (from bulb base) into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for two consecutive years after planting. Precooling reduced the percentage of T. `White Emperor' that flowered but did not affect flowering percentage of the other cultivars. Precooling delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep and the 45-cm planting depth reduced flowering percentage. Increasing planting depth delayed anthesis for all cultivars. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in one or both years for all cultivars, but did not influence flowering percentage. Perennialization was low for all cultivars regardless of treatment. Cultivar differences in perennialization occurred; in year 2 up to 30% of N. `Tahiti' bulbs flowered vs. 32% for `Music Hall' and up to 30% of T. `White Emperor' bulbs flowered vs. only 22% of `Couleur Cardinal'.
Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole
Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' (CB) and `Champion Pink' (CP) and Lupinus hartwegii Lindl. `Bright Gems' (LH) were grown in 8- or 16-h initial photoperiods, transplanted when two–three, five–six, or eight–nine nodes developed and placed under 8-, 12-, or 16-h final photoperiods. Greatest flowering percentage (100%) for CB and CP occurred when plants with two–three nodes were grown in the 16-h final photoperiod. The lowest flowering percentage for CB (3.3%) and CP (15.7%) resulted from plants grown in the 8-h photoperiod continuously (initial and final). CB and CP stem lengths (49.8 cm) were longest when grown in the 8-h photoperiod continuously and shortest with the 16-h initial and 8-h final photoperiods for CB (26.5 cm) and the 16-h photoperiod continuously for CP (25.4 cm). Fewest days to anthesis, 134 days for CB and 145 days for CP, resulted from the 16-h photoperiod continuously and greatest (216 days) from the 8-h photoperiod continuously. LH plants had a high flowering percentage (99.6%) regardless of photoperiod or transplant stage. Stem lengths were longest (60.1 cm) for LH plants exposed to the 16-h photoperiod continuously and shortest (46.2 cm) when exposed to the 8-h photoperiod continuously. LH exhibited a curvilinear response for days to anthesis with the 16-h final photoperiod producing the shortest crop time (166 days) and the 12-h final photoperiod producing the longest crop time (182 days). The experiment was repeated in 1998/1999 with high intensity discharge (HID) lighting during the initial photoperiod which increased plant quality.
Todd J. Cavins, John M. Dole, and Vicki Stamback
Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), larkspur [Consolida ambigua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heyw.], delphinium (Delphinium ×cultorum Voss.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), lupine (Lupinus hartwegii Lindl.), stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.], and pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.) were grown in raised sandy loam ground beds in double-layered polyethylene-covered greenhouses which were either unheated (ambient) or had a 55 °F (13 °C) minimum night temperature in year 1 and 36 or 50 °F (2 or 10 °C) minimum night temperature in year 2. Results were species specific; however, the extreme low temperatures [21 °F (-6 °C)] in the unheated house limited delphinium and lupine production. The warmest greenhouses (55 and 50 °F) reduced production time for anemone, delphinium, larkspur, lupine (year 2), snapdragon (year 2),stock, and sunflower. The coolest greenhouses (unheated and 36 °F) increased stem lengths for anemone (year 2), delphinium, larkspur (year 1), lupine (year 2), snapdragon, stock, and sunflower. The coolest green-houses also yielded a profit or lower net loss for all species except delphinium, lupine, and snapdragon (year 2) for which profits were highest or net losses were lowest in the warmest greenhouses.
Michael R. Evans, Giampaolo Zanin, and Todd J. Cavins
Water-holding capacity represents the volume of water retained by a substrate after a saturating irrigation and drainage, and it is often referred to as container capacity. However, water-holding capacity is a time-specific measurement that is limited to the status of the substrate immediately after saturation and drainage. It does not provide information regarding how quickly water is lost from the substrate, the substrate water status over time, or the irrigation frequency required for a substrate under specific conditions. A new procedure was developed that generated a single numeric value that described the wetness of a substrate and in so doing took into account the substrate's water-holding capacity and drying rate. This value was referred to as an E-value. For substrates included in this study, E-values ranged from a low of 6 for parboiled fresh rice hulls (PBH) to a high of 93 for the commercial substrate Metro Mix 360. The procedure was shown to generate E-values that were as would be expected for the evaluated substrates and also ranked the substrates as would have been expected. Over repeated evaluations, the procedure was demonstrated to have a maximum inherent variability of plus or minus one E-value.
Todd J. Cavins, Brian E. Whipker, and William C. Fonteno
Most commercial and university substrate testing laboratories' recommended floriculture nutritional values are based on the saturated media extract (SME) method. With the recent gain in popularity of pour-through nutritional monitoring, alternative recommended values are needed for nutrient analyses based on pour-through extracts. Pour-through nutritional values were compared to the SME values to develop calibration curves and recommended nutritional values. Euphorbia pulcherrima `Freedom Red' Willd. ex Klotzch. were grown for two consecutive growing seasons in 16.5 cm plastic pots with Fafard 4 P root substrate and fertigated with 200, 300, or 400 mg·L-1 N from a 13N-0.88P-10.8K fertilizer. Linear relationships existed and inverse calibration curves for pour-through and SME comparisons were developed for (r 2): EC (0.98), NO3 - (0.98), P (0.97 to 0.99), K (0.99), Ca (0.94 to 0.97), and Mg (0.91). In addition, recommended pour-through substrate value ranges were developed for comparison with SME values. The established calibration curves and pour-through substrate value ranges will allow substrate-testing laboratories to make nutritional recommendations based on pour-through extractions.
Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, James L. Gibson, and Todd J. Cavins
Flurprimidol substrate drenches at 2 mg a.i. per 15.3 cm (6 inch) pot were more effective on `Pacino' pot sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) than flurprimidol foliar sprays of ≥30 mg.L –1 (ppm), but both treatments resulted in significantly smaller plant height and diameter than the control (28,350 mg = 1 oz). Flurprimidol drenches of 2 mg were comparable in controlling plant height and diameter to the commercial drench recommendations of 2 mg paclobutrazol. The commercial recommendation of daminozide foliar sprays at 4000 mg.L –1 had greater efficacy in controlling plant height than the most effective flurprimidol foliar sprays of ≥30 mg.L –1. Daminozide had no effect on plant diameter, while flurprimidol resulted in narrower plants. Flurprimidol and paclobutrazol drenches of 2 mg offer the economic advantage to producers of increased plant density on greenhouse benches, while plants treated with daminozide would require a greater amount of bench area. Producers should evaluate the trade-offs between the added costs of a drench vs. the higher cost-per-square-foot-week of production space required for a daminozide foliar spray. With these options, producers can select a plant growth regulator (PGR) that best fits their production and market requirements.