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- Author or Editor: Tingting Song x
The Agaricus genus represents the most popular edible mushroom in the world. Wheat straw often is used as the substrate for mushroom cultivation following pretreatment to degrade the lignocellulosic biomass in agricultural waste. In this study, we investigated the changes in bacterial and fungal microflora of wheat straw substrate during different phases of composting. We collected samples of the raw material (M1), phase I aerobic fermentation (F1, F2, F3), and phase II after-fermentation (AF1) for high-throughput 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing to analyze the microbial diversity in the substrate during composting. Our data revealed that among the five stages, 365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared, with Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria being the predominant bacterial phyla. In addition, Thermobispora, Thermopolyspora, Ruminiclostridium, Thermobacillus, and Bacillus were the predominant genera in F3 and AF1, with the species Thermobispora bispora and Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis being predominant in F2. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plots showed that the bacterial communities of five stages could be distinguished from each other based on their composting time. The Shannon and Simpson indexes of F2 were lower than M1 (P < 0.05), and the clustering dendrogram showed that the bacterial communities in AF1 were similar to F3, with Micromonosporaceae, Streptosporaceae, Thermomonosporaceae, and Vulgatibacteraceae representing the differential bacterial families by linear discriminant analysis with effect size (LEfSe) analysis. The analysis of fungal communities showed that 384 OTUs were common among the five stages, with 1054 and 454 OTUs unique to M1 and AF1, respectively. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the two predominant phyla in all stages, and Chytridiomycota was predominant in F2, F3, and AF1 stages. PCA and NMDS plots showed that the clusters of F2 and AF1 were more dispersed than the other stages. No differences were observed in alpha diversity between the stages, and samples of F1, F2, and F3 were closer to AF1 in the clustering dendrogram. By LEfSe analysis, Mycothermus thermophilus, Gonapodya polymorpha, and Phaeophleospora_eugeniae were identified as the predominant fungal species in AF1.
Anthocyanins are protective pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as fruits and leaves, and are nutritionally valuable components of the human diet. There is thus considerable interest in the factors that regulate synthesis. Malus crabapple leaves are rich sources of these compounds, and in this study we analyzed leaf coloration, anthocyanin levels, and the expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in three crabapple cultivars (Royalty, Prairifire, and Flame) following various temperature treatments. We found that low temperatures (LTs) promoted anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Royalty’ and ‘Prairifire’, leading to red leaves, but not in ‘Flame’, which accumulated abundant colorless flavonols and retained green colored leaves. Quantitative reverse transcript PCR (RT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was induced by LTs, as were members of the R2R3-MYB, basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) and WD40 transcription factor families that are thought to act in a complex. We propose that anthocyanin biosynthesis is differentially regulated in the three cultivars by LTs via the expression of members of this anthocyanin regulatory complex.
Anthocyanins are protective pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as fruits and leaves, and are nutritionally valuable components of the human diet. The MYB10 transcription factor (TF) plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Malus crabapple leaves. However, little is known about how the promoter regulates McMYB10 expression and influences the substantial variation in leaf anthocyanin accumulation and coloration that is observed in different crabapple cultivars. In this study, we analyzed leaf coloration, anthocyanin levels, and the expression levels of McMYB10 in the leaves of 15 crabapple cultivars with three leaf colors at various development stages, and showed that the expression of McMYB10 correlates positively with anthocyanin accumulation. We also examined the relationship between the number of R6 and R1 elements in the McMYB10 promoters of the different cultivars and the pigmentation of the new buds of spring-red cultivars, as well as the methylation level of the McMYB10 promoters at different development stages in three representative crabapple cultivars. The ratio of R6/R1 minisatellites in the promoters correlated with the color and anthocyanin accumulation in new crabapple buds, and we concluded that the differences in promoter structure and methylation level of the McMYB10 promoters coordinately affect the leaf color of crabapple cultivars.