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Open access

Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu and Travis Robert Alexander

Two studies were performed in Mount Vernon, WA, to identify bulb fennel (Foeniculum ×vulgare) cultivars and seeding practices best suited for the region. The first study evaluated 13 cultivars (Bronze, Finale, Florence, Genesi, Idillio, Orazio, Orion, Perfection, Preludio, Solaris, Tauro, Tenace, and Zefa Fino) over the course of 2 years; during the second year, the additional main factor of the seeding date was included. The second study evaluated three bulb fennel cultivars (Finale, Tauro, and Zefa Fino), four seeding dates (17 May, 31 May, 14 June, and 28 June 2018), and two planting methods (direct and transplant). Results of the two studies demonstrated that ‘Finale’, ‘Orazio’, ‘Preludio’, ‘Solaris’, and ‘Tenace’ had the greatest bulb production rate and yield and good bulb quality that met marketability standards. ‘Genesi’, ‘Orion’, and ‘Perfection’ had good bulb production during only 1 of the 2 years, whereas ‘Bronze’, ‘Florence’, ‘Idillio’, and ‘Zefa Fino’ had very low bulb productivity both years due to bolting. ‘Perfection’ and ‘Tauro’ exhibited internal cracking both years (incidence rates of 9.5% and 12.8%, respectively). The first harvest was 94 to 112 days after seeding during the first study. Direct seeded bulb fennel required 32 fewer days to harvest than transplanted bulb fennel during the second study. The average bulb circumference was 28.1 cm, with little variation between studies. Bulb tenderness for both studies was 617 g-force, on average, and the soluble solids concentration of bulbs in both studies was 4.9%. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on 38 tentatively identified compounds demonstrated no difference in the phenolic content of bulb fennel due to the cultivar. In conclusion, bulb fennel cultivars well-suited for production in northwest Washington were identified and direct seeding was demonstrated to be a better planting method than transplanting.

Open access

Travis R. Alexander, Thomas S. Collins and Carol A. Miles

‘Brown Snout’ cider apple (Malus ×domestica) is desired by cider makers for its relatively high levels of phenolics, and over-the-row machine harvesting of ‘Brown Snout’ has been demonstrated to provide similar yield to hand harvest at a significantly lower cost. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a measurable impact of harvest method on the phenolic profile of ‘Brown Snout’ juice and cider to better inform equipment adoption recommendations. Using a redox titration assay, the titratable tannin content (± SE) of juice (0.19% ± 0.01%) and cider (0.19% ± 0.01%) were found not to differ due to harvest method. Using a protein precipitation assay, juice from machine-harvested fruit was found to have lower levels of total tannins [231 ± 36 mg·L−1 catechin equivalents (CE)] than juice from hand-harvested fruit (420 ± 14 mg·L−1 CE). However, the total tannins of cider did not differ due to harvest method, the overall average for machine and hand harvest was 203 ± 22 mg·L−1 CE. The total phenolics of juice and cider did not differ due to harvest method (1415 ± 98 mg·L−1 CE and 1431 ± 73 mg·L−1 CE, respectively). Discriminant analysis based on an average of 33 tentatively identified phenolic compounds, as measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, showed no separation due to harvest method in juice or cider. In conclusion, over-the-row machine harvesting of ‘Brown Snout’ resulted in a final product of similar quality at reduced labor costs, and thus shows potential for increasing the commercial sustainability of cider apple operations.