Several inheritance experiments with bentazon herbicide-tolerant Capsicum annuum `Bohemian Chili' (BCH P1) and susceptible `Keystone Resistant Giant' (KRG, P2) and `Sweet Banana' (SB, P2) were conducted. Populations of plants at the three- to five-leaf stage were treated with a bentazon rate of 4.5 kg·ha-1. Tolerance expression was affected by environment and varied across experiments. F2 and BCP2 generations from both susceptible parent crosses fit the expected ratios for a single, dominant gene conferring tolerance. Reciprocal F1s showed a maternal effect on tolerance intensity not consistently observed in reciprocal BCP2s or at all in reciprocal F2s. Segregation ratios of reciprocal crosses, however, were not heterogeneous, based on x2 tests of observed ratios in seven of eight cases. Variable tolerance expression in expected homogeneous populations (P1, P2, and F1) and lower tolerance in BC3 families suggested that modifying factors affected tolerance. Analysis of genetic components of shoot height and fresh weight generation means showed significant digenic epistasis, primarily additive × dominance. Modifying genes that affect the major gene controlling tolerance in BCH are, therefore, present. The simple inheritance of bentazon tolerance, even though modifying factors were present, facilitated transfer of bentazon tolerance into KRG via backcrossing. Chemical name used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).
David W. Wolff, Wanda W. Collins and Thomas J. Monaco
Federica Galli*, Douglas D. Archbold, Kirk W. Pomper, Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp and Randall W. Collins
Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] is a highly perishable climacteric fruit, softening rapidly once ripening commences which may limit its marketability. In studies to determine the optimum cold storage temperature and maximum storage life of the fruit, pawpaw fruit were stored at -2, 2, and 6 °C for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and then ripened upon removal to ambient temperature. Through 4 weeks, fruit exhibited adequate firmness upon removal from cold storage, but at 8 and 12 weeks fruit held at 2 and 6 °C were very soft. Irrespective of storage temperature, at 8 weeks fruit showed a delay in a climacteric-like respiratory increase, and by 12 weeks a respiratory climacteric was not apparent. An ethylene climacteric was evident after all temperature and storage periods except those held at 6 °C for 12 weeks. Significant symptoms of cold injury were found by 8 weeks of 2 °C cold storage. In addition to a delayed respiratory climacteric, pawpaw fruit stored for 8 and 12 weeks exhibited flesh browning within 48 h of moving to ambient temperature. A change in fruit aroma volatile profile suggested injury might have been developing by 4 weeks of cold storage even though other symptoms were not evident. Immediately after harvest, methyl octanoate was the dominant volatile ester followed by methyl hexanoate. By 4 weeks of postharvest cold storage, ethyl hexanoate was the dominant ester followed by ethyl octanoate, but methyl octanoate production was still substantial. At 8 weeks, volatile ester production was generally lower with ethyl hexanoate the major volatile followed by ethyl octanoate. These symptoms indicate that pawpaw fruit can suffer cold injury during extended periods of cold storage.
Douglas D. Archbold, Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp, Ann M. Clements and Randy W. Collins
Seedless table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Crimson Seedless were exposed to (E)-2-hexenal vapor during cold storage to determine its potential as a fumigant for long-term control of postharvest mold. Fruit were fumigated with 0.86 or 1.71 mmol (100 or 200 μL neat compound, respectively) (E)-2-hexenal per 1.1-L container for 2 weeks during 2 °C storage. Containers were moved to 20 °C storage after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for determination of mold incidence and berry quality over 12 days. The headspace concentration of (E)-2-hexenal, measured by gas chromatography, reached a maximum of 2.5 and 4.2 μmol·L–1 for 0.86 and 1.71 mmol per container, respectively, after 1 day and declined to <1 μmol·L–1 for both treatments by 14 days. Upon removal from cold storage at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the incidence of mold was significantly lower for (E)-2-hexenal–treated fruit. Control of mold by (E)-2-hexenal fumigation persisted through 12 days of 20 °C storage, even though mold generally increased in all treatments. The two levels of (E)-2-hexenal were similar in their suppression of mold. Fumigation did not affect O2 or CO2 concentrations within the containers, nor were fruit firmness or soluble solids content affected. Postharvest fumigation of seedless table grapes with the natural volatile compound (E)-2-hexenal shows promise for control of mold.
Travis R. Alexander, Thomas S. Collins and Carol A. Miles
‘Brown Snout’ cider apple (Malus ×domestica) is desired by cider makers for its relatively high levels of phenolics, and over-the-row machine harvesting of ‘Brown Snout’ has been demonstrated to provide similar yield to hand harvest at a significantly lower cost. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a measurable impact of harvest method on the phenolic profile of ‘Brown Snout’ juice and cider to better inform equipment adoption recommendations. Using a redox titration assay, the titratable tannin content (± SE) of juice (0.19% ± 0.01%) and cider (0.19% ± 0.01%) were found not to differ due to harvest method. Using a protein precipitation assay, juice from machine-harvested fruit was found to have lower levels of total tannins [231 ± 36 mg·L−1 catechin equivalents (CE)] than juice from hand-harvested fruit (420 ± 14 mg·L−1 CE). However, the total tannins of cider did not differ due to harvest method, the overall average for machine and hand harvest was 203 ± 22 mg·L−1 CE. The total phenolics of juice and cider did not differ due to harvest method (1415 ± 98 mg·L−1 CE and 1431 ± 73 mg·L−1 CE, respectively). Discriminant analysis based on an average of 33 tentatively identified phenolic compounds, as measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, showed no separation due to harvest method in juice or cider. In conclusion, over-the-row machine harvesting of ‘Brown Snout’ resulted in a final product of similar quality at reduced labor costs, and thus shows potential for increasing the commercial sustainability of cider apple operations.
Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu and Travis Robert Alexander
Two studies were performed in Mount Vernon, WA, to identify bulb fennel (Foeniculum ×vulgare) cultivars and seeding practices best suited for the region. The first study evaluated 13 cultivars (Bronze, Finale, Florence, Genesi, Idillio, Orazio, Orion, Perfection, Preludio, Solaris, Tauro, Tenace, and Zefa Fino) over the course of 2 years; during the second year, the additional main factor of the seeding date was included. The second study evaluated three bulb fennel cultivars (Finale, Tauro, and Zefa Fino), four seeding dates (17 May, 31 May, 14 June, and 28 June 2018), and two planting methods (direct and transplant). Results of the two studies demonstrated that ‘Finale’, ‘Orazio’, ‘Preludio’, ‘Solaris’, and ‘Tenace’ had the greatest bulb production rate and yield and good bulb quality that met marketability standards. ‘Genesi’, ‘Orion’, and ‘Perfection’ had good bulb production during only 1 of the 2 years, whereas ‘Bronze’, ‘Florence’, ‘Idillio’, and ‘Zefa Fino’ had very low bulb productivity both years due to bolting. ‘Perfection’ and ‘Tauro’ exhibited internal cracking both years (incidence rates of 9.5% and 12.8%, respectively). The first harvest was 94 to 112 days after seeding during the first study. Direct seeded bulb fennel required 32 fewer days to harvest than transplanted bulb fennel during the second study. The average bulb circumference was 28.1 cm, with little variation between studies. Bulb tenderness for both studies was 617 g-force, on average, and the soluble solids concentration of bulbs in both studies was 4.9%. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on 38 tentatively identified compounds demonstrated no difference in the phenolic content of bulb fennel due to the cultivar. In conclusion, bulb fennel cultivars well-suited for production in northwest Washington were identified and direct seeding was demonstrated to be a better planting method than transplanting.
Elazar Fallik, Douglas D. Archbold, Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp, Ann M. Clements, Randy W. Collins and Margaret M. Barth
Some plant-derived natural volatile compounds exhibit antifungal properties and may offer an opportunity to control the causes of postharvest spoilage without affecting quality of, or leaving a residue on, fresh produce. The natural wound volatile (E)-2-hexenal has exhibited significant antifungal activity in earlier studies, but effects on spore germination and mycelial growth have not been separated, nor has the inhibitory mode of action been determined. To determine the efficacy of (E)-2-hexenal for control of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. spore germination and mycelial growth, and to examine the mode of action, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. Under in vitro bioassay conditions, spore germination was more sensitive to the compound than was mycelial growth. Vapor from 10.3 μmol of (E)-2-hexenal in a 120-mL petri dish completely inhibited spore germination. However, 85.6 μmol of (E)-2-hexenal was required to completely inhibit mycelial growth. Lower concentrations of the compound (5.4 and 10.3 μmol) significantly stimulated mycelial growth, especially when the volatile was added 2 days following inoculation. Mycelial growth did not occur as long as the vapor-phase concentration was 0.48 μmol·L-1 or greater. Light microscopy analysis indicated that a high concentration of volatile compound dehydrated fungal hyphae and disrupted their cell walls and membranes. Exposure of B. cinerea-inoculated and non-inoculated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit in 1.1-L low-density polyethylene film-wrapped containers to vapor of (E)-2-hexenal at 85.6 or 856 μmol (10 or 100 mL, respectively) per container for durations of 1, 4, or 7 days during 7 days of storage at 2 °C promoted the incidence of B. cinerea during subsequent shelf storage at 20 to 22 °C. Loss of fruit fresh mass and fruit firmness during storage at 22 °C was increased by (E)-2-hexenal treatment, but fruit total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and color (L, C, and H values) were not affected. Thus, maintenance of a high vapor-phasel level of (E)-hexenal, perhaps >0.48 μmol·L-1, may be necessary to inhibit mycelial growth and avoid enhancing postharvest mold problems, while significantly higher levels may be necessary to completely eliminate the pathogen.