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- Author or Editor: Thomas Archer x
Residues of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos) on Calimyrna figs (Ficus carica L.) declined to <5 ppb by day 6 after trees were pressure sprayed with 2,805 liters/ha at a rate of 2.24 kg Vaponite 2 a.i./ha for control of dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus hemipterus L.) and Drosophila spp. and fruit were sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 days. Very little residue (<5 to 33 ppb) was detected on fresh figs after multiple applications of 2.24 and 4.48 kg a.i./ha. All of the ground dried figs had significant residues. About 90.9% of the residues were removed after dehydration. Dichlorvos residues were on the surface of the figs but were not easily removed by surface wash only. Residues were absorbed in the surface cuticle materials of the figs and surface waxes must be dissolved to successfully remove the residues from the plant material.
Residues of dimethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), monomethyl-2,3,5, 6-tetrachloroterephthalate (MTP), 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalic acid (TPA) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in tops and roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to which the herbicide had been applied as a soil treatment for preemergence control of weeds under commercial field conditions. Residues of these compounds in the radish roots were either negligible or less than the analytical method sensitivity (0.01 ppm for all compounds except HCB which was 0.001 ppm). Much more residues of DCPA were found in the radish tops ranging from about 2 to 13 ppm. Residues of the other compounds were higher in the tops, in all instances, than in the roots. Recoveries of all the chemicals in fortified controls ranged from 70 to 100%.
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) pericarp, shell and kernel were analyzed for levels of azinphos-methyl and its oxygen analog 21 days after application of 227 g (0.56 kg/ha) and 454 g (1.12 kg/ha) active ingredient/379 liters (100 gal) applied at the rate of 1136 liters (300 gal)/0.405 ha with an airblast sprayer. Levels of chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.6 ppm in the pericarp and only negligible levels were detected in the shell and kernel. Hull split ranged from 4.4 to 17.2%. Method sensitivity was 0.1 ppm and recoveries ranged from 80 to 100%.
The U.S. nursery and landscape industry generates 1.9 million jobs and had an annual payroll of greater than $3 billion in 2002, yet little is known about nursery and landscape workers. This lack of information is even more pressing considering that labor generally accounts for greater than 40% of production costs and 31% of gross sales. Labor shortages, immigration reform, and legal status of employees are widely reported as the industry's most critical issues. We hypothesized that relevant data regarding the nursery industry workforce may raise an appreciation of the industry's diversity, increase political power and public awareness, and help stakeholders evaluate policy decisions and plan corrective strategies in a more informed manner. A total of 4466 self-administered questionnaires were sent in 2006, attempting to reach 30 nurseries in each of nine states with 1561 returned (35% response rate). Hispanics constituted 70% of the average nursery workforce, including general laborers (76%), crew leaders (61%), and sales/managers (others) (21%). Across firms, labor retention was less than 51% after 5 years and only 22% of employees understood English, raising questions regarding availability and access to training. Sixty percent of nursery employees had not received work-related training, although 81% of men and 72% of women were interested, and an association between training and employee retention existed. The highest rated training topic of interest was English/Spanish (respective of Spanish/English primary language respondents). There was a positive correlation between developing fluency and worker turnover, making the laborer attrition rate even more unfavorable for employers who not only lost employees with acquired experience, but also with acquired English skills.