Carbohydrate concentration may be important for flower initiation and fruit set in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Fruit set has been shown to be a major limiting factor in yield component analysis. The objective of this research was to identify carbohydrate concentrations in cranberry tissues at various stages of development under field conditions. Samples of two cranberry cultivars, `Stevens' and `Searles' were collected during the 1989 season using a 13 cm diameter probe. Samples were divided into fruit, uprights, woody stems and roots. Carbohydrates were quantified by HPLC. Nonstructural carbohydrates were primarily sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. Soluble carbohydrate concentration was stable throughout the season in tissues analyzed, while starch content was high early in the season then decreased during blossom and fruit set. This work shows that starch reserves in leaves and stems apparently are remobilized to support fruit set in cranberry.
Teryl R. Roper and Marianna Hagidimitriou
Teryl R. Roper and J. Klueh
The sources of carbohydrate and other resources for fruit growth in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) can be spatially partitioned into new growth, old leaves, and woody stems or other adjoining uprights. This research was conducted to determine which spatial source of resources was most important for fruit set in cranberry. At fruit set in late June, we removed the current season growth, one year old and older leaves, or both from 50 uprights per treatment plus a control at two locations. At harvest, fruit set, fruit number and size were determined. In all cases, removing the current season's growth significantly decreased fruit set. Removing both the current season's growth and old leaves produced an additional reduction in fruit set. Removing only old leaves reduced fruit set at one location but not the other. Fruit length, diameter or mean berry weight was not reduced by any treatment. The response of cranberry to resource limitation apparently is to reduce fruit numbers rather than fruit size. This research suggests that current season growth is the primary source of carbohydrates for fruit set in cranberry and that once the fruit are set they have sufficient sink strength to attract resources from a distance.
Marianna Hagidimitriou and Teryl R. Roper
Fruit set has been shown to be a major limiting factor in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) productivity. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content is lowest during the flowering and fruit set period. This research was undertaken to determine the potential sources of carbohydrates which are important to support fruit set and fruit growth in cranberry. Fruiting uprights had lower TNC content than vegetative uprights beginning at early bloom and continuing through harvest, largely due to lower starch content. Starch from fruiting uprights is apparently remobilized to support flowering and fruit set. This also suggests that uprights on which the fruit are borne are the primary source for carbohydrates for fruit set and fruit growth throughout the season. Net CO2 assimilation rates (NAR) were measured in the field on current season and one year old leaves on cranberry uprights. New leaves had higher NAR than one year old leaves throughout the season. Thus, newly formed leaves on uprights, appear to be an important source for carbohydrates for fruit set and fruit growth. On a diurnal basis NAR peaked at approximately 9:00 a.m. and gradually declined through the day.
Marianna Hagidimitriou and Teryl R. Roper
`Searles' (low yielding) and `Stevens' (high yielding) cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) tissues were collected in 1990 and 1991 to determine the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates in above-ground (uprights, woody stems) and below-ground tissue. Uprights had the highest total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration, followed by woody stems, while below-ground tissue contained the lowest TNC concentration. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration in uprights increased early in the season, reached a maximum in late May, decreased as flowering approached, and remained low from late June to late August. The latter period corresponds to flowering, fruit set, floral initiation, and fruit development stages. In late August, when fruit were full size, TNC levels increased, reaching highest concentration in November as the plants were entering dormancy. Most TNC increase in the early season and the subsequent decrease were due to changes in starch. The increase of TNC late in the season was primarily due to increases in soluble carbohydrates. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was greater in vegetative than fruiting uprights for the entire growing season. The lower TNC concentration in fruiting than vegetative uprights during flowering and fruit set was due to greater starch depletion in fruiting uprights. Seasonal changes in TNC in the two cultivars were similar; however, `Stevens' had generally higher TNC concentration and total dry weight as well as more fruiting uprights, fruit, and fruit weight per ground area. The low TNC concentration observed during fruit set and development suggests that the demands for carbohydrates are highest during that period and supports the hypothesis that competition for carbohydrate resources is one factor responsible for low cranberry fruit set.
Teryl R. Roper and Armand R. Krueger
Cranberry plants exclusively utilize ammonium forms of nitrogen. Nitrification of applied ammonium and subsequent leaching through sandy soils is a potential problem for growers. Peat, sand, and striped soils were collected in cranberry beds in central Wisconsin and soil pH was adjusted to 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5. Twenty-five grams of dry soil was placed in flasks and half the flasks were sterilized. Distilled water was added to half of the samples, and the other half received 15N-labeled ammonium. Flasks were incubated at 20°C for up to 70 days. Striped soils showed no nitrification at pH 3.5 or 4.5 during the 70 day incubation. At pH 5.5, nitrification began at 20 days and was almost complete at 70 days. Nitrification did not occur at any pH in sandy soils. This research suggests that ammonium fertilizer applied to cranberry is likely taken up before nitrification would occur.
Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh
The dwarfing potential of apple interstems has long been recognized. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the dwarfing effect of apple interstems and interstem starch concentration. In 1981 apple trees with P2 or P22 interstems on clonal Antonovka rootstock using Jerseymac or Starkspurmac as scion were planted. In 1989 and 1990 core samples from the interstems and root samples were analyzed for starch concentration. Roots always had higher starch concentrations than interstems. In the spring, P22 interstems had higher starch levels than P2 interstems, but in the fall the reverse was found. No difference in starch concentration was found between the Antonovka rootstock under the same interstem. However, root starch concentration was more stable under P22 than P2. Further, roots under P22 were lower in starch in the fall than in the spring. This suggests that P22, the more dwarfing interstem, may interfere with the transport of carbohydrates through the trunk, which may be a factor in dwarfing.
Teryl R. Roper, John Klueh, and Marianna Hagidimitriou
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines were shaded with either 72% or 93% shadecloth (28% or 7% of full sun) for 1 month before flowering, after flowering, or before harvest. Fruit set was reduced by heavy shade (93%) before flowering in 1991 but not in 1992 or 1993. Heavy shade following flowering reduced fruit set in 1991 and 1992 but not 1993. The number of flowers per upright was generally not affected by shading but was reduced by prebloom shading at either level in 1993. Mean berry weight was usually conserved. Yield was reduced by shading at either level following flowering in 1991 and 1992. Shading just before harvest had no effect on the characteristics measured. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was reduced to about half relative to the controls by either shading level at all treatment dates. Carbohydrate concentrations recovered to control levels by 4 to 8 weeks following removal of shading. Shading always reduced carbohydrate concentrations but did not always reduce fruit set or yield.
Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh
The sources of photosynthate for fruit growth in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) can be spatially partitioned as new growth, old leaves and woody stems, or adjoining uprights. New growth, l-year-old leaves, or both were removed at the time of fruit set and following fruit set. Removing new growth at the time of fruit set reduced fruit set, fruit count, and yield. Removing old leaves at fruit set generally did not reduce fruit set, fruit count, or yield. Removing both often had an additional effect. Removing new leaves after fruit set did not affect fruit set or count, but did reduce fruit size. Removing old leaves after fruit set did not reduce fruit set, fruit count, or size. These data suggest that new growth is an important source of photosynthate for fruit set.
Yahya K. Al-Hinai and Teryl R. Roper
This experiment was conducted to determine temporal weed management parameters for tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) orchards. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.) were planted in tree rows of a 4-year-old tart cherry orchard. Weeds either were not controlled or controlled with nonresidual herbicides during the following intervals: all-summer; May, June, July, or August; preharvest (April-July); or postharvest (late July to frost). Trees in all-summer, June, and preharvest weed-free plots had more shoot growth, more nodes, longer internodes, greater leaf area, and higher concentrations of leaf nitrogen than did those in the weedy control and postharvest, July, or August treatments. A larger increase in trunk circumference was observed in all-summer and preharvest weed-free plots than in postharvest and weedy plots. Early-summer weed control was important for tree vegetative growth. Tree yield (fruit weight and number) was greater on trees without weed competition postharvest than in those treated in May, June, July, or in weedy controls. Late-season (after late July) weed control is therefore important for fruit yield.
Matt J. Stasiak and Teryl R Roper
Inadequate branch production on apple trees can result in reduced bearing surface and problems with tree training. We sought to increase the number of lateral shoots by enclosing the one year old portion of the central leader of two year old `Jonamac', `Red Jonagold', and `Scarlet Gala', apple trees two weeks prior to bud emergence. The bags were then removed when the longest shoots in the bag were approximately 2.5 cm long. After leaf fall the number and length of shoots in the bagged sections were measured. The number of lateral shoots >5 cm in length produced on the bagged sections of the leaders was increased by 3.7. Total lateral growth on the central leader increased by 149 cm per tree. Trunk cross-sectional area, tree height, or production of lateral shoots >5 cm were not affected by bagging. Differences between clear and orange bags were not significant. Bagging appeared to be an efficient means to induce trees to produce lateral branches. The greatest benefit would be to varieties like `Jonamac' and `Red Jonagold' which averaged only 1.7 laterals without bags.