In 1986, an orchard systems trial was planted with `Empire' and `Jonagold' on M.26 rootstock to compare the performance of the Y-trellis training system at a range of spacings and rectangularities. There were four in-row spacings ranging from 90 cm to 3.66 m and four between-row spacings ranging from 3 to 6 m, giving tree densities from 472 trees/ha up to 3588 trees/acre. Rectangularities ranged from 0.83 to 6.67. In several cases, different spacings gave the same tree density, but with different rectangularity. Trees were trained to a Y-shaped trellis with a 60° angle. Scaffold branches were trained to the wires on each side of the Y in a fan-shaped arrangement. At the closest in-row spacing only two scaffolds were allowed per tree, while at the widest in-row spacing up to 12 scaffolds were allowed per tree. At the end of 11 years, tree weight and cumulative yield per tree were negatively correlated to tree density, while light interception and cumulative yield per hectare were positively correlated to tree density. However, the relationship was weakened by differing results with different rectangularities at the same spacing. As rectangularity increased at a given density, tree size, yield, and light interception were reduced. However, at the lower densities, trees failed to completely fill the trellis when rectangularity was low, thus limiting yield per hectare. Fruit red color was reduced at the highest densities and increased with increasing rectangularity.
Terence L. Robinson
`Empire'/M.26 apple trees which were planted in 1978 and trained to a Y-trellis were pruned differentially from 1989-1993. Trees were dormant pruned by removing from 1-4 scaffold limbs. The annual increase in trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), and the number and length of shoots removed during summer pruning increased linearly as the severity of pruning increased. The number of shoots removed during summer pruning from the most severe pruning treatment was more than double that of the least severe treatment Cumulative fruit number and yield were reduced linearly with increasing severity of pruning while average fruit size was increased only slightly by severity of pruning. Light interception was reduced with increasing severity of pruning. Tree efficiency of converting light energy into fruit (g fruit/MJ PAR intercepted) was linearly reduced with increasing pruning severity. Most of the reduction in conversion efficiency appeared to be due to reduced partitioning of resources into fruit since partitioning index (g fruit/unit increase in TCA) was more highly correlated to pruning severity than to conversion efficiency. Conversion efficiency and partitioning index accounted for a greater portion of the yield variation than did light interception indicating that the influence of pruning on yield was more a function of changing internal physiology than reduced light interception.
Terence L. Robinson and Warren Stiles
A field experiment was established in 1993 in a 3-year-old `Empire'/M.9 apple orchard. An incomplete factorial treatment design compared nitrogen only fertilization with nitrogen plus potassium fertilizer applied either on the ground with and without trickle irrigation or through the trickle irrigation system. Timing of potassium fertigation treatments compared season-long K fertigation to early season or late-season K fertigation. Results of main effects showed that K fertilization reduced trunk cross-sectional area increase, but increased yield, fruit size, and fruit red color. There was no benefit of fertigation compared to ground application of fertilizers plus trickle irrigation. There was no effect of source of K fertilizer (KCl vs KNO3) on tree growth, yield, fruit size, or color. Time of K fertigation showed that late-season K fertigation resulted in greater trunk cross-sectional area increase compared to early season fertigation or season-long fertigation. Fruit size was greatest when K fertigation was done in the early season. There was no effect of time of fertigation on yield or fruit red color. Potassium fertilization increased leaf K levels and reduced leaf Mg levels. Time of fertigation did not affect leaf K levels, but early season fertigation resulted in higher leaf N levels.
Terence L. Robinson and Zhongbo Ren
Eleven year-old Empire/M.7 apple trees were shaded continously for 4 years with half-tree shading cages. Shading reduced primary spur leaf duration, bourse shoot leaf area, specific leaf weight, spur diameter and bud diameter. Over the four years, shaded spurs continued to increase in length but spur diameter increased very little resulting in long and brittle spurs. However, shaded spurs continued to flower and set fruit. Leaf area development was similar inside and outside the cages at one week after bloom but by 2 weeks after bloom, spurs inside the cages had significantly lower leaf area. Shading reduced fruit set, fruit size, fruit color, fruit soluble solids and fruit dry matter. Fruit growth rate was reduced by shading early in the season but was no different than the unshaded controls by 4 weeks after full bloom.
In an attempt to reverse the negative effects of shading on spur vigor, foliar urea, zinc-EDTA and solubor were sprayed 3 times during the early growing season each year. Rather than increasing spur leaf area, foliar nutrient sprays significantly reduced bourse shoot leaf area and did not increase the duration of primary spur leaves. Although foliar nutrients reduced total spur leaf area, they improved fruit size, color and soluble solids slightly.
Jason L. Osborne and Terence L. Robinson
In 2004, we conducted a chemical thinning field study in Appleton, N.Y., on 5-year-old `Rising Star' peach trees on Lovell rootstock. Treatments included soybean oil or petroleum oil applied at 8% about 30 days before budbreak. Ammonium thio-sulfate (ATS) 3.5 gal/acre, ATS 5.0 gal/acre, lime sulfur (1%, 3%) plus Crockers fish oil 2 gal/acre, and Wilthin 6 pt/acre were applied at FB; and the grower standard hand-thinning treatment at 45 DAFB. Trees treated with thinning agents were not given supplemental hand thinning. The high rate of ATS, 5.0 gal/acre and Wilthin 6 pt/acre had the greatest thinning effect and reduced fruit set by 55% and 61%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The high rate of ATS also increased fruit size 25%, but reduced yield by 45%. Soybean and petroleum oil treatments did not significantly reduce fruit set. Lime sulfur plus fish oil treatments 1% and 3% also did not significantly reduce fruit set. Although a significant reduction in yield was observed in the high rate ATS and Wilthin treatments, a greater proportion of the crop was in the larger size categories. In 2005, treatments included soybean oil 8% plus Latron B 1956 applied 18 days and 25 days before FB, Lime sulfur (2%, 4%) plus Crockers fish oil (2%) applied at FB, Ammonium thio-sulfate (ATS) 3.5%, 5.0%, Wilthin 1.9, 2.8 L (Entek, Inc.), plus Regulaid 473 mL per 935 L/ha applied at FB, Entry 1.5, 3.0%, Tergitol TMN-6 0.75, 1.5%, hand-thin flowers to a crop load of seven fruits per cm2 at FB and hand-thin fruit to 7 fruits per cm2 applied 45 days after FB.
Terence L. Robinson* and Christopher B. Watkins
In 2001 and 2002, we imposed a wide range of croploads (0-15 fruits/cm2 of TCA) on 4- and 5-year-old Honeycrisp/M.9 trees by manual hand thinning soon after bloom to define appropriate croploads that give adequate repeat bloom and also the best fruit quality. At harvest each year we evaluated fruit ripening and quality. Samples were stored for 5 months in air at 38 °F and 33 °F and evaluated for fruit firmness and storage disorders. Cropload was negatively correlated with tree growth, return bloom, fruit size, fruit red color, fruit sugar content, fruit starch content, fruit firmness, fruit acidity, fruit bitter pit, fruit senescent breakdown, fruit rot and fruit superficial scald, but was positively correlated with leaf blotch symptoms, fruit internal ethylene concentration at harvest, and fruit soggy breakdown. There was a strong effect of cropload on fruit size up to a cropload 7, beyond which there was only a small additional effect. Although there was considerable variation in return bloom, a relatively low cropload was required to obtain adequate return bloom. Fruit red color was reduced only slightly up to a cropload of 8 beyond which it was reduced dramatically. The reduced fruit color and sugar content at high croploads could indicate a delay in maturity of but, fruits from high croploads were also softer, had less starch and greater internal ethylene. It that excessive croploads advance maturity. Overall, croploads greater than 10 resulted in no bloom the next year, and poor fruit size, color and flavor, but these fruits tended to have the least storage disorders. Moderate croploads (7-8) resulted in disappointing return bloom and mediocre fruit quality. For optimum quality and annual cropping, relatively low croploads of 4-5 were necessary.
Terence L. Robinson and Bruce H. Barritt
In unstressed apple seedlings (Malus domestics Borkh.), concentrations of free abscisic acid (ABA) decreased in order from apical stem sections, immature expanding leaves, mature stem sections, and mature leaves. PEG-induced water stress stimulated a 2- to 10-fold increase in free ABA concentrations 1 day after treatment, depending on the amount of stress and the tissue. By the 3rd day of stress, free ABA concentrations were nearly the same as the unstressed treatment and remained low for the remainder of the 21-day stress period. Bound ABA concentrations were an order of magnitude lower than free ABA and were not influenced dramatically by water stress. Shoot growth rate, leaf expansion rate, and leaf emergence rate were reduced by water stress in relation to the severity of the stress; this reduction was associated with the initial increase in ABA. However, there was no increase in shoot or leaf growth rates associated with the decline in ABA concentrations by day 3 as growth rates remained depressed on water-stressed plants throughout the 21-day stress period. Water stress reduced evapotranspiration rate and midshoot leaf water potential (ψW)after 1 day, but leaf osmotic potential (ψS) adjusted more slowly, resulting in a loss of leaf turgor. The reduction in leaf turgor pressure (ψP) was highly correlated with decreased shoot growth rate and increased ABA concentrations on day 1 after treatment. By the 3rd day of water stress, ψP bad recovered even in the most severe treatment, and the recovery of turgor was associated with the drop in ABA concentrations. However, the increase in midshoot ψP and the decline in ABA were not associated with any increase in shoot growth rate. The continued inhibition of shoot growth was probably not related to ABA or turgor pressure of mature leaves but may have been related to turgor pressure in the growing tip.
Terence L. Robinson and William C. Johnson
Rootstock breeding programs in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Japan have all released apple rootstocks in the recent past that are potentially important to the worldwide apple industry in the next century. Several of these programs are continuing to breed new rootstocks. Each program has focused on different breeding objectives, thus giving a wide range of horticultural characteristics among this new group of rootstocks. All programs have focused on the horticulturally important traits of productivity, dwarfing and precocity but certain programs have also emphasized other characteristics such as propagability, stress tolerance, disease resistance or insect resistance. Commercialization of this new group of rootstocks is proceeding at an extremely fast pace due to the worldwide networking of fruit tree nursery companies and the use of plant patents. This presents a large job for research and extension personnel to properly test rootstocks for adaptability to different growing areas before they are planted on a large scale. The national rootstock testing project (NC-140) composed of researchers from most apple growing states and provinces in the U.S. and Canada is collecting rootstocks from around the world and conducting uniform field trials that give performance data from a wide variety of climates and soils. This information becomes the basis for local rootstock recommendations in North America. This presentation reviews the most promising rootstocks from around the world and summarize the research information from North American and worldwide trials.
Terence L. Robinson and Warren C Stiles
A field experiment was established in 1992 with `Empire' apple trees on either M.7 or M.9 rootstock. Preplant fertilization with NPKB plus lime compared to the lime only control did not increase tree growth during the first 4 years, but did increase cumulative yield (10%) and average fruit size (7%). The addition of annual applications of ground-applied NKB after planting increased total shoot growth 17%, as well as yield (26%) and fruit size (14%) compared to the lime only control. Trickle irrigation significantly increased trunk cross-sectional area (17%), shoot growth (16%), yield (18%), fruit size (5%), and yield efficiency (7%). The interaction of ground fertilization and trickle irrigation showed that trickle irrigation increased the benefits of ground applied fertilizers. Without trickle irrigation, ground-applied fertilizers increased shoot growth only 6% and yield 14% compared to the unfertilized controls, but, with the addition of trickle irrigation, the ground-applied fertilizers increased shoot growth 21% and yield 21% over the irrigated but unfertilized control. Ground fertilization increased yield efficiency and fruit size by the percentage by whether or not trickle irrigation was present. Fertigation gave similar results as the trickle plus ground fertilizer treatment on tree growth, yield, fruit size, and yield efficiency. Our results indicate that trickle irrigation in the eastern United States can improve tree growth, yield, and fruit size in the first few years after planting. The addition of ground-applied fertilizer or fertigation can improve tree performance even more. However, in the humid New York climate, there does not appear to be a significant benefit from injecting the fertilizer into the trickle water compared to applying the fertilizer on the ground.
Terence L. Robinson and Alan N. Lakso
Bases of orchard productivity were evaluated in four 10-year-old apple orchard systems (`Empire' and `Redchief Delicious' Malus domestics Borkh. on slender spindle/M.9, Y-trellis/M.26, central leader/M.9/MM.111, and central leader/M.7a). Trunk cross-sectional areas (TCA), canopy dimension and volume, and light interception were measured. Canopy dimension and canopy volume were found to be relatively poor estimators of orchard light interception or yield, especially for the restricted canopy of the Y-trellis. TCA was correlated to both percentage of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted and yields. Total light interception during the 7th to the 10th years showed the best correlation with yields of the different systems and explained most of the yield variations among systems. Average light interception was highest with the Y-trellis/M.26 system of both cultivars and approached 70% of available PAR with `Empire'. The higher light interception of this system was the result of canopy architecture that allowed the tree canopy to grow over the tractor alleys. The central leader/M.7a had the lowest light interception with both cultivars. The efficiency of converting light energy into fruit (conversion efficiency = fruit yield/light intercepted) was significantly higher for the Y-trellis/M.26 system than for the slender spindle/M.9 or central leader/M.9/MM.111 systems. The central leader/M.7a system bad the lowest conversion efficiency. An index of partitioning was calculated as the kilograms of fruit per square centimeter increase in TCA. The slender spindle/M.9 system had significantly higher partitioning index than the Y-trellis/M.26 or central leader/M.9/MM.111. The central leader/M.7a system had the lowest partitioning index. The higher conversion efficiency of the Y/M.26 system was not due to increased partitioning to the fruit; however, the basis for the greater efficiency is unknown. The poor conversion efficiency of the central leader/M.7a was mostly due to low partitioning to the fruit. The Y-trellis/M.26 system was found to be the most efficient in both intercepting PAR and converting that energy into fruit.