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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is an annual weed that is particularly troublesome in managed turfgrass. It has been controlled conventionally with herbicides, including acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. However, resistance to ALS inhibitors has been documented throughout the southeastern United States since 2012. A rate response trial was conducted to confirm and determine the resistance level of suspected resistant P. annua biotypes from Mississippi (Reunion), followed by DNA sequencing to determine whether the mechanism of resistance is a target-site mutatio n. In addition, a fitness assay was conducted together with a susceptible biotype to determine whether resistance to ALS inhibitors is associated with decreased fitness. Reunion was at least 45 times more resistant to foramsulfuron than the standard susceptible biotype based on I50 estimates [I50 is the rate of herbicide giving a 50% response (50% visual necrosis)], requiring a predicted 331 g a.i./ha foramsulfuron for 50% control. DNA sequencing results identified a Trp574-to-Leu mutation in the ALS gene of the Reunion biotype, which has been shown by other studies to confer resistance to ALS inhibitors. Measurement of fitness parameters among the Reunion and susceptible biotypes demonstrated reduced seed yield, tillering, and flowering time in the resistant Reunion biotype, suggesting that ALS inhibitor resistance is possibly correlated to decreased fitness in P. annua. Alternative methods to control P. annua need to be considered as a result of the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. An integrated management strategy to control P. annua weeds will help prevent further evolution of resistance. Because this study evaluated only the target-site mechanism of resistance, it is also necessary to determine whether the resistant biotype has reduced uptake, translocation, or enhanced metabolism as additional mechanisms of resistance. Consequently, a fitness study encompassing a more comprehensive list of plant parameters will provide conclusions of the fitness costs associated with ALS inhibitor resistance in P. annua. Chemical names: Foramsulfuron {1-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-[2-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-5-formamidophenylsulfonyl] urea}.

Open access

Isabel Schlegel Werle, Alencar Junior Zanon, Nereu Augusto Streck, Carlos Eduardo Schaedler, Felipe Schmidt Dalla Porta, Geovana Facco Barbieri, André da Rosa Ulguim, and Te Ming Tseng

This study aimed to assess the phytosociology of weeds as a function of different crop management technology levels in cassava production. Field experiments were conducted in Santa Maria (29°41′03″ S; 53°48′25″ W) and Itaqui (lat. 29°07′31″ S; long. 56°33′11″ W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Treatments consisted of three technology levels: low (postemergence weeding without basal dressing); medium (weeding performed at 7 and 40 days after planting and fertilization with 6.25, 25, and 25 kg⋅ha−1 of N, P, and K, respectively); and high (postemergence application of s-metolachlor; 1250 kg⋅ha−1 of lime and 12.5, 50, and 50 kg⋅ha−1 of N, P, and K, respectively). Weed frequency, density, relative abundance, and importance values were calculated for each location. Then, locations were compared using a dissimilarity matrix. Weed density and diversity decreased linearly as technology levels increased. The predominant weed species found in Itaqui and Santa Maria belong to the Poaceae family. Itaqui presented highest weed diversity among the locations. The genus Cyperus had the highest importance value index in Santa Maria. The use of S-metolachlor at the high technology level provided a lower frequency and lower diversity of weed species than did levels without chemical control in Itaqui and Santa Maria.

Free access

Erick G. Begitschke, James D. McCurdy, Te-Ming Tseng, T. Casey Barickman, Barry R. Stewart, Christian M. Baldwin, Michael P. Richard, and Maria Tomaso-Peterson

Preemergence herbicides generally have a negative effect on hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] establishment. However, little is known about the effect they have on root architecture and development. Research was conducted to determine the effects of commonly used preemergence herbicides on ‘Latitude 36’ hybrid bermudagrass root architecture and establishment. The experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse maintained at 26 °C day/night temperature at Mississippi State University in Starkville, MS, from Apr. 2016 to June 2016 and repeated from July 2016 to Sept. 2016. Hybrid bermudagrass plugs (31.6 cm2) were planted in 126-cm2 pots (1120 cm3) and preemergence herbicide treatments were applied 1 d after planting at the recommended labeled rate for each herbicide. Preemergence herbicide treatments included atrazine, atrazine + S-metolachlor, dithiopyr, flumioxazin, indaziflam, liquid and granular applied oxadiazon, S-metolachlor, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and simazine. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Plugs treated with indaziflam and liquid applied oxadiazon failed to achieve 50% hybrid bermudagrass cover by the end of the experiment. Of the remaining herbicide treatments, all herbicides other than granular applied oxadiazon and atrazine increased the number of days required to reach 50% cover (Days50). In addition, all herbicide treatments reduced root mass when harvested 6 weeks after treatment (WAT) relative to the nontreated. By 10 WAT, all treatments reduced root mass in run 1, but during run 2, only prodiamine, pendimethalin, simazine, atrazine + S-metolachlor, liquid applied oxadiazon, and indaziflam reduced dry root mass compared with the nontreated. At 4 WAT, all treatments other than simazine and granular applied oxadiazon reduced root length when compared with the nontreated. By 10 WAT, only dithiopyr, S-metolachlor alone, and indaziflam reduced root length when compared with the nontreated. No differences were detected in the total amounts of nonstarch nonstructural carbohydrates (TNSC) within the roots in either run of the experiment. Results suggest that indaziflam, dithiopyr, and S-metolachlor are not safe on newly established hybrid bermudagrass and should be avoided during establishment. For all other treatments, hybrid bermudagrass roots were able to recover from initial herbicidal injury by 10 WAT; however, future research should evaluate tensile strength of treated sod.