An average of >20% seedless (blank) fruit are produced annually in Pistacia vera cv. Kerman. The degree of blank production was reportedly not related to individual tree yields and, therefore, was not thought to be resource limited (Crane, J.C., 1973. HortSci. 8:388-390). In two crop years, we studied the variability in percentage blanking among individual shoots characterized by widely varying leaf area to fruit (L/F) ratios. L/F ratios were related inversely to the percentage of blank fruit produced. Thus, individual branches behaved somewhat autonomously with respect to blanking. Our data are consistent with the view that embryo development was resource-limited. Although `Kerman' exhibits the potentiality for parthenocarpic fruit set, the hissed distribution of seedless fruit within the tree presumably indicates that blanking is an example of stenospermocarpy. Blanking does not result primarily from inadequate pollination under typical field conditions.
Steven A. Weinbaum and T.T. Muraoka
I. Klein, T.M. DeJong, S.A. Weinbaum, and T.T. Muraoka
Exposure to photosynthetically active radiation and the consequent effect on leaf mass per unit leaf area (SLW) and nitrogen (percent dry weight and μg·mm-2) allocation within tree canopies was investigated in walnut (Juglans regia `Serr' and `Hartley') trees. Percent contribution of discrete light flux densities below light saturation (100-700 μmol·s-1·m-2) to the total light exposure of individual spurs, exposed up to 9 hour·day-1 to saturating light (>700 μmol·s-1·m-2), was minimal (<1 hour), indicating that individual spurs were either exposed or shaded most of the day. SLW and N content per unit leaf area of individual spurs were highly correlated (second-order polynomial curve fit) with light exposure within the tree canopy, indicating uneven allocation of available N for optimal utilization. Nitrogen expressed as percent dry weight was not correlated with light exposure and SLW. Leaf N content per leaf area was highly correlated (linear fit) with SLW.
F.J.A. Niederholzer, T.M. DeJong, J.-L. Saenz, T.T. Muraoka, and S.A. Weinbaum
Marginally nitrogen (N)-deficient, field-grown peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group) 'O' Henry'] were used to evaluate seasonal patterns of tree N uptake, vegetative growth, and yield following fall or spring fertilization. Sequential tree excavations and determinations of tree biomass and N contents in Feb. and Aug. allowed estimation of N uptake by fall-fertilized trees between September 1993 and mid-February 1994. Total N uptake (by difference) by spring- fertilized trees as well as additional N uptake by fall-fertilized trees over the spring.summer period was also determined. In fall-fertilized trees, only 24% of tree N accumulation between September 1993 and August 1994 occurred during the fall/dormancy period. Spring- and fall-fertilized trees exhibited comparable vegetative growth, fruit size, and yield despite lower dormant tree N contents and tissue N concentrations in the spring-fertilized trees. Fifty percent of tree leaf N content was available for resorption from leaves for storage in woody tree parts. This amount (N at ~30.kghhhhhhha-1) was calculated to represent more than 80% of the N storage capacity in perennial tree parts of fertilized peach trees. Our data suggest that leaf N resorption, even without fall soil N application, can provide sufficient N from storage to initiate normal growth until plant-available soil N is accessed in spring.
X. Deng, S.A. Weinbaum, T.M. DeJong, and T.T. Muraoka
Abortion of distillate flowers (PFA) in a protandrous cultivar of walnut (Juglans regia L. cv. Serr) was increased by N deficiency. Starch and N concentrations in wood of 2-year-old twigs decreased to minimal levels during abortion of distillate flowers. Nitrogen reserves in woody tissues were reduced by foliar N deficiency, as were concentrations of sugars and N in vacuum-extracted xylem sap. Abortive distillate flowers ceased growth before spur leaves reached 50% of full expansion. PFA may result from transient deficiencies of C and N during the spring flush of growth. Depletion of storage C and N was accentuated before maturation of distillate flowers in this cultivar by the metabolic demands of many catkins, spur growth, and leaf expansion.
I. Klein, S.A. Weinbaum, T.M. DeJong, and T.T. Muraoka
Localized and carry-over effects of light exposure [as inferred from specific leaf weight (SLW)] on spur viability, flowering, and fruit set were monitored in selected spurs throughout walnut (Juglans regia, cvs. Serr and Hartley) tree canopies. Shaded spurs (i.e., average SLW <4 mg·cm-2) were predisposed to die during the winter, and spur mortality was accentuated among spurs that had borne fruit that season. More catkins and distillate flowers per spur were characteristic of the more exposed positions within the canopy (as indicated by SLW) during the previous summer and following an “off” year. In exposed `Serr' canopy positions (SLW >5 mg·cm-2), catkin and Pistillate flower maturation was reduced in fruiting spurs by 60% and 30%, respectively, in the subsequent year relative to vegetative spurs. In `Hartley', the number of distillate flowers was also reduced by 35% on spurs that fruited the previous year relative to spurs that had been vegetative. Maximum rates of return bloom and fruit set were evident in spurs exhibiting the highest SLW and N per unit leaf area (NA), specific to each cultivar. Among spurs of both cultivars, distillate flower development was more sensitive to shading in the previous season than was catkin development. Shell weight of `Serr' varied positively with SLW, but kernel weight, fruit N, and oil concentration did not vary “with SLW in either cultivar.
Vito S. Polito, Steven A. Weinbaum, and Tom T. Muraoka
Experiments were conducted to determine if differential responses of walnut pollen germination to temperature, previously observed to occur among genotypes, were genetically fixed or expressions of phenotypic plasticity representing adaptive responses to temperatures experienced during pollen development. Individual branches of a single walnut (Juglans regia L. cv. Serr) tree were warmed above ambient conditions during the final stages of pollen differentiation by directing a stream of moist, heated air into polyethylene enclosures, each containing an individual branch unit. Pollen was collected at staminate anthesis and incubated in germination medium on a temperature gradient apparatus. Model curves fitted to the in vitro pollen germination data were used to determine optimum germination temperatures. We found adaptive responses of pollen germination to temperatures experienced during pollen development. The optimum temperature for in vitro germination for pollen from branches maintained under ambient conditions was lower than that of pollen from branches with elevated temperature, and optimum germination temperature increased as a log function of integrated daily temperature (degree-days) experienced during pollen development.
K.M. Kelley, S.A. Weinbaum, P.B. Catlin, and T.T. Muraoka
Nitrogen (N) deficiency reduced biomass and altered N allocation within large walnut tree canopies (Juglans regia L. cv Serr). N-fertilized control trees contained 2.5 times more N in current year spurs, leaves and fruit than did those of N-deficient trees. The N content and biomass allocated to kernels was reduced in N-deficient canopies to a greater extent than was al location to current year shoots and foliage. N removal in abscised leaves and fruit was 3 times greater in canopies of fertilized trees than in N-deficient trees.
A non-destructive method is described to calculate total spur, leaflet and fruit numbers. Calculations were based on ratios of fruit counts on selected scaffold limbs to total fruit number per tree. Dry weight and N content of representative spurs, leaflets and fruit permitted estimation of whole canopy biomass and N content in these organs. N contained in current year spurs and the N lost from the tree in fruit and leaf litter were calculated for both N-fertilized control and N-deficient trees.
S.A. Weinbaum, G.A. Picchioni, T.T. Muraoka, L. Ferguson, and P.H. Brown
The effects of alternate bearing on recovery and loss of isotonically labeled fertilizer N and B and on the accumulation of carbohydrate and N reserves were assessed in mature `Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees. Total recovery of labeled fertilizer N applied once (in late January) was ≈ 60% greater if applied to trees entering an “off' than an “on” year, with respect to fruiting. Eleven percent more labeled B was recovered in off- than on-year trees. Five times more N (1 vs. 0.2 kg N) was lost from the tree in fruit and senescent leaflets from on- than off-year trees. In dormant trees, 144% and 22% more starch and N reserves, respectively, were present after off than on years. Thus, on-year trees were characterized by a greater reproductive demand for N and carbohydrates, reduced accumulation of C and N (i.e., storage) reserves in perennial tree parts, and reduced recovery of January-applied labeled fertilizer N than off-year trees. As B is absorbed passively, the higher transpiration that may accompany the 43% larger leaf area per tree and the probability of increased root growth probably contributes to its increased uptake during off years. The enhanced labeled N recovery in early spring by trees entering their off year preceded fruit and seed development in on-year trees. The differential tree capacity for nutrient uptake in spring may have been conditioned the previous rather than the current year. The increased uptake of labeled N by trees entering an off year (i.e., emerging from an on year) was associated with lower levels of carbohydrate and N reserves than for on-year trees that had just completed an off year. Future experimentation should assess the comparative capacity for nutrient uptake by on-and off-year trees at other stages of phenology, e.g., during seed development and postharvest.
G.A. Picchioni, P.H. Brown, S.A. Weinbaum, and T.T. Muraoka
Estimates of leaflet and fruit macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) accumulation and resorption were developed in six (three heavily cropping, on-year and three noncropping, off-year) mature pistachio (Pistacia vera L. `Kerman') trees over three growing seasons during three stages of phenology [the spring growth flush (April to June); seed fill (late June to September); and leaf senescence (September to November)]. Crop load influenced total nutrient content per tree in annual organs (leaves and fruit), the relative allocation of nutrients between leaves and fruit, temporal patterns of nutrient accumulation in annual organs, and the magnitude of net leaf nutrient resorption per tree prior to leaf fall. In off-year trees, macronutrient accumulation in annual organs (leaves) was concentrated during the spring flush of growth. In contrast, significant macronutrient accumulation in annual organs of on-year trees (leaves plus fruit) occurred not only during the spring flush of growth but also during seed fill. Duration and magnitude of macronutrient accumulation were greater in on-year vs. off-year trees. Fruit N and P demand during seed fill was partially met by a net decrease in the N and P contents of the pericarp. These decreases in pericarp nutrient content during seed fill were equivalent to 32% and 26% of embryo accumulation of N and P, respectively. Fruit demand for N, P, and K during the spring flush of “on” years was accompanied by reduced leaf N, P, and K contents per tree. Net leaf N, Ca, and Mg resorption per tree during leaf senescence differed with crop load. Net leaf N resorption was significantly greater in off-year trees than on-year trees. Leaf N resorption presumably represents an important component of the N pool stored in perennial tree parts during dormancy. The greater leaf N resorption following “off” years was a function of greater leaf N concentration and greater leaf biomass per tree. In contrast, net leaf resorption of Ca and Mg was greater in on-year vs. off-year trees. Experimental validation of the magnitude and periodicity of nutrient uptake by mature pistachio trees is needed during the alternate-bearing cycle, especially in light of the potential contribution of current fertilization practices to groundwater contamination.
S.M. Southwick, S.A. Weinbaum, T.T. Muraoka, W.R. Krueger, K.A. Shackel, and J.T. Yeager
Leaf dry weight per leaf area (LDW/LA); weight of leaf N per unit leaf area (LN/LA); leaf dry weight (LDW); and fruit quality, particularly sugar per fruit (SF); fruit fresh weight (FFW); and fruit dry weight (FDW) were measured over a range of daily average incident photosynthetic photon flux values (PPF) (50 to 1000 μmol·s-1·m-2) in 7-year-old prune (Prunus domestics L. syn. `Petite d'Agen') tree canopies. Linear or curvilinear relationships between these leaf attributes and fruit characteristics were significant over the PPF range. Analysis of LDW/LA or LN/LA may be used to indicate tree canopy locations in which fruit size and quality is limited by suboptimal PPF.