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Interveinal chlorosis has been observed on the oldest leaves of several varieties of flowering crabapple (Malus sargentii Rehl). Our objective was to identify the cause of this disorder. Foliage and soil from 20 Sargent crabapple trees growing on 12 different sites were analyzed for possible nutrient deficiencies or excesses. Analyses showed N to be slightly low, Ca high, and Mg low in all leaf samples. Soil analysis showed Ca to be abnormally high at all sites. We concluded that the leaf discoloration was caused by a Mg deficiency due to Ca suppression of the Mg and that the low foliar N might be a contributing factor in the interveinal chlorosis.

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The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service conducts the largest and oldest pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] breeding program in the world. This program evaluates thousands of nut and kernel samples each year using a standard nut and kernel evaluation system developed and refined for more than 70 years. This report relates the effectiveness of these evaluations to commercial shelling efficiency by direct comparison of these data to commercially shelled samples from the same clone performance test. Visual ratings of shelled kernel samples (1-5, with 1 = best) were correlated with time required to hand clean kernel samples (r = 0.55). As percent kernel increased, visual ratings of shelled kernels improved (decreased) (r = -0.73). More intact halves were recovered from shelled samples with the best (lowest) visual ratings (r = -0.67). Conversely, fewer pieces of any size were present in samples with the best visual ratings. Visual ratings improved as nut density decreased (r = 0.33). Samples with the lightest kernel color also had the best visual ratings (r = 0.38). These data show that the standard U.S. Dept. of Agriculture pecan nut and kernel evaluation system needs to be refined by modifying selection pressure placed on various standard evaluation traits.

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Precocity of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seedlings (year of first fruit production) was studied in relation to original seed measurements (nut weight, buoyancy, volume, and density) and in relation to growth index (GI) measurements of seedling trees for 4 years. A total of 2,071 pecan seedlings, representing nine controlled-cross families, were studied. Original seed measurements were not related to precocity of resultant seedling trees; but seed weight, buoyancy, and volume were significantly correlated with seedling growth rates. Nut density was negatively related to growth of seedlings. These relationships show the importance of original seed measurements and seed parentage in determining seedling growth, and have direct relevance in pecan nursery operations to increase general rootstock seedling vigor. Seedling growth rate was significantly correlated to precocity levels, with measurements taken in the later years of the study showing the highest correlations with precocity. This strong growth-precocity relationship may have negative genetic implications since a common breeding objective is to produce more precocious cultivars that maintain smaller tree size in mature orchards.

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Citrus production in the southwestern U.S. is highly dependent on inputs of irrigation and N fertilizer to achieve optimum fruit yield and quality. Microsprinkler irrigation may allow for substantial increase in efficiency of N and water application. However, best management practices have not yet been developed for microsprinkler use, particularly on newly established citrus trees. Experiments were conducted during 1997–98 in central Arizona to evaluate the effects of various N rates and fertigation frequencies on growth and N partitioning in young `Newhall' navel oranges planted in Apr. 1997. Two experiments were conducted, each with factorial combinations of N rate and fertigation frequency. In one experiment, non-labeled N fertilizer was used and in the other 15N-labeled N fertilizer. Trunk diameter, leaf N, and 15N partitioning in the trees were measured. During 1997, neither trunk diameter or leaf N were affected by N rate or fertigation frequency. No more than 6% of the N applied was taken up by the trees, and about 50% of the fertilizer N taken up was found in the leaves. Trees grew much more rapidly in 1998. Leaf N in fertilized plots was significantly higher than in control plots, but leaf N in all trees remained above the critical level of 2.5%. Despite rapid tree growth during 1998, no more than 25% of the fertilizer N applied was taken up by the trees. About 60% of the fertilizer N taken up was found in the leaves. Results suggest that N applications are not needed during the first growing season after planting for microsprinkler-irrigated citrus trees in the Southwest. Only modest rates (68 to 136 g/tree) will be needed during the second season to maintain adequate tree reserves.

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Experiments at two commercial farms in Bermuda tested the effectiveness of solarization of narrow beds alone and together with metam sodium (MS) to enhance in-field production of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) and kale (B. oleracea L. var. acephala DC.) transplants. Soil treatments of clear, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch (25 μm), white LDPE mulch (25 μm) plus MS (702 L·ha-1), and clear mulch plus MS were compared to bare soil. Mulches were applied and MS incorporated through rototiller cultivation 20 cm deep into 1.2-m-wide, flat seed-beds in the last week of June 1995. Mulches were maintained for 8 weeks. Either Broccoli `Pirate' or kale `Blue Curled Scotch' were seeded into transplant beds in Warwick and Devonshire parishes, respectively. Stand data was obtained for broccoli and kale 25 and 35 days, respectively, after seeding. Transplants were rated for root infection and biomass at 11 days (broccoli) or 31 days (kale) after seeding. In general, solarization was as effective as MS in suppression of soilborne pathogens of broccoli and kale plants. An additive effect on plant biomass was observed when solarization and MS were combined. All treatments significantly increased the establishment of broccoli plants and decreased root infection by Rhizoctonia solani in both crops. The incidence of Fusarium sp. was significantly decreased by all treatments in kale roots, and in broccoli by MS alone and in combination with solarization. Shoot fresh weight was significantly increased in kale by all treatments and in broccoli by solarization plus MS.

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The Munsell system of color notation was used to study differences in kernel color arising between four pecan cultivars (`Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Western', and `Wichita') grown at four locations (Tulare, Calif., and Brownwood, Crystal City and El Paso, Texas) during two seasons (1987 and 1988) and were stored under different temperatures (ambient and frozen). The hue, value, and chroma of pecan kernels varied significantly in the 2 years of the test. Kernels collected in 1987 were more yellow and lighter and had greater color saturation than kernels collected in 1988. Cultivars differed in hue, value, and chroma at the initial color determination. `Cheyenne' kernels were the most yellow (hue of 18.8) and were the lightest (value of 6.4) of any cultivars tested. `Wichita' kernels were more intensely colored (chroma of 4.7) than `Cheyenne' or `Choctaw' kernels. Kernels from pecan trees in El Paso were more yellow than those from other locations and were lighter than kernels from either Brownwood or Tulare, Calif. Kernels evaluated after being frozen 6 or 12 months could be distinguished from fresh kernels on the basis of hue. Frozen samples were more red than fresh kernels. Kernels frozen 12 months were less intensely colored than fresh kernels or those frozen only 6 months. There was a significant linear relationship between time in the freezer and each color attribute. Hue and chroma were negatively correlated with storage time, while value was positively correlated.

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Abstract

Boron (B) sprays applied to ‘Barcelona’ hazelnut orchards induced fruit set increases over controls, averaging 23% in 1984 and 17% in 1985. Leaves from B-sprayed trees had higher B contents than controls throughout the season. Amounts of B in young fruits increased two-fold with B sprays, but, unlike leaf values, differences between treated and control fruits disappeared by mid-summer. In the orchards studied, the B content of developing fruits from unsprayed trees was similar even though leaf B content varied widely. Because fruit set increases were obtained in both seasons with B sprays on trees whose leaf values currently are considered excessive, as well as those considered optimal or deficient, guidelines for B recommendation need revision. Boron content in May fruit from unsprayed trees might be universally low for optimum nut development, indicating that annual B sprays may be required. Foliar sprays in April damaged young leaves and shoot tips; thus, delaying sprays until the 2nd week of May is recommended.

Open Access

A microsatellite library has been developed from `Halbert', a native pecan selection from Coleman County, Texas, using methods developed at the Texas A&M Univ. Crop Biotechnology Center. A total of 6144 DNA fragment clones were archived in 384 well plates for screening. Four-hundred-thirty-nine clones were positive after Southern hybridization using di- and tri-nucleotide repeats as probes. One-hundred-twenty-five positive clones were sequenced on an ABI 377 automated DNA sequencer. Of these, 24 repeats had enough sequences at the two ends to design primers. Primers were designed using Primer Express software, and were synthesized by Genosys, USA. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) chosen for primer analysis include di- (CA and GA) and tri-nucleotide repeats (CTT, GAA and GAT). The SSRs were amplified under high stringency conditions with temperatures based on length and GC content. Reproducibility was verified using `Halbert' DNA isolated from different inventories. Of the 24 primer pairs tested, 20 successfully amplified microsatellites from `Halbert'. DNA was isolated from 48 pecan and hickory accessions selected to strategically represent the genetic diversity of the NCGR Carya collections (a core collection). The accessions included parent-progeny combinations, individuals from geographically distant native populations, species, and interspecific hybrids. The 20 SSR primers that produced good amplification products in `Halbert' were used to evaluate the collection, with 11 revealing multiple sizes of the repeat. The number of bands amplified with different primer combinations ranged from 4 to 32 in the 48 genotypes tested. We used RFLPscan software to aid in gel scoring (sizing amplified fragments, and comparing amplification profiles), and NTSYSpc software to evaluate genetic similarities. Evaluation of the data confirms the utility of the primers in delimiting known relationships.

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