Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] fruit presents a considerable weight for the tree to support during the growing season. A major part of this weight is due to the pecan shuck that surrounds the developing nut and kernel. Pecan clones vary considerably for the amount of shuck per nut, and little is known as to the value of this weight in determining final nut quality. Six cultivars differing in basic nut shapes and sizes were studied and found to vary greatly for shuck thickness, and weight of shuck per unit final nut weight and volume. Shuck thickness was shown to be a favorable genetic characteristic since fruit with thicker shucks had slightly greater nut fresh and dry weight, nut volume, nut density, kernel weight and content, and shuck weight per nut volume. `Sioux' had the thickest shucks (4.70 mm), while `Pawnee' had the thinnest shucks (3.72 mm). Fresh weight per fruit varied from 21.25 g for `Podsednik' to 10.18 g for Osage. Weight of fruit per tree was extrapolated using average shuck and nut weights, and it was determined that the fruit on each tree would weigh about 104 kg. This is a considerable weight, and adds substantially to limb breakage. However, thicker shucks contribute to final nut quality.
T.E. Thompson and L.J. Grauke
The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service conducts the largest and oldest pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] breeding program in the world. This program evaluates thousands of nut and kernel samples each year using a standard nut and kernel evaluation system developed and refined for more than 70 years. This report relates the effectiveness of these evaluations to commercial shelling efficiency by direct comparison of these data to commercially shelled samples from the same clone performance test. Visual ratings of shelled kernel samples (1-5, with 1 = best) were correlated with time required to hand clean kernel samples (r = 0.55). As percent kernel increased, visual ratings of shelled kernels improved (decreased) (r = -0.73). More intact halves were recovered from shelled samples with the best (lowest) visual ratings (r = -0.67). Conversely, fewer pieces of any size were present in samples with the best visual ratings. Visual ratings improved as nut density decreased (r = 0.33). Samples with the lightest kernel color also had the best visual ratings (r = 0.38). These data show that the standard U.S. Dept. of Agriculture pecan nut and kernel evaluation system needs to be refined by modifying selection pressure placed on various standard evaluation traits.
T.E. Thompson and L.J. Grauke
Precocity of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seedlings (year of first fruit production) was studied in relation to original seed measurements (nut weight, buoyancy, volume, and density) and in relation to growth index (GI) measurements of seedling trees for 4 years. A total of 2,071 pecan seedlings, representing nine controlled-cross families, were studied. Original seed measurements were not related to precocity of resultant seedling trees; but seed weight, buoyancy, and volume were significantly correlated with seedling growth rates. Nut density was negatively related to growth of seedlings. These relationships show the importance of original seed measurements and seed parentage in determining seedling growth, and have direct relevance in pecan nursery operations to increase general rootstock seedling vigor. Seedling growth rate was significantly correlated to precocity levels, with measurements taken in the later years of the study showing the highest correlations with precocity. This strong growth-precocity relationship may have negative genetic implications since a common breeding objective is to produce more precocious cultivars that maintain smaller tree size in mature orchards.
T.E. Thompson and J.F. Baker
Heritability estimates for pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] nut weight, nut buoyancy, nut volume, nut density, kernel weight, and percentage kernel were determined from 8748 nut samples representing 152 families collected during 25 years in the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) pecan breeding program at Brownwood, Texas. Measurements were corrected for year-to-year environmental variability using least-squares constants of individual year effects. Adjusted values were then regressed on midparent means. Generally, heritability (h2) estimates were low to moderate: nut weight 0.35, nut buoyancy 0.18, nut volume 0.35, nut density 0.03, kernel weight 0.38, and percentage kernel 0.32. The low values are probably due to the extreme alternate bearing tendency of this species, since crop load affects pecan nut characteristics so directly. Phenotypic correlations among these traits showed that larger or heavier nuts had significantly higher kernel weight, buoyancy, and percentage kernel. Nut density increased with higher nut and kernel weight, but decreased with nut volume.
T.E. Thompson, E.F. Young Jr. and H.D. Petersen
L.J. Grauke, T.E. Thompson and E.F. Young Jr.
The Munsell system of color notation was used to study differences in kernel color arising between four pecan cultivars (`Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Western', and `Wichita') grown at four locations (Tulare, Calif., and Brownwood, Crystal City and El Paso, Texas) during two seasons (1987 and 1988) and were stored under different temperatures (ambient and frozen). The hue, value, and chroma of pecan kernels varied significantly in the 2 years of the test. Kernels collected in 1987 were more yellow and lighter and had greater color saturation than kernels collected in 1988. Cultivars differed in hue, value, and chroma at the initial color determination. `Cheyenne' kernels were the most yellow (hue of 18.8) and were the lightest (value of 6.4) of any cultivars tested. `Wichita' kernels were more intensely colored (chroma of 4.7) than `Cheyenne' or `Choctaw' kernels. Kernels from pecan trees in El Paso were more yellow than those from other locations and were lighter than kernels from either Brownwood or Tulare, Calif. Kernels evaluated after being frozen 6 or 12 months could be distinguished from fresh kernels on the basis of hue. Frozen samples were more red than fresh kernels. Kernels frozen 12 months were less intensely colored than fresh kernels or those frozen only 6 months. There was a significant linear relationship between time in the freezer and each color attribute. Hue and chroma were negatively correlated with storage time, while value was positively correlated.
D. A. Dierig, A. E. Thompson and D. T. Ray
Guayule. (Parthenium argentatum Gray), a rubber-producing shrub of the southwest desert, is currently being investigated to increase rubber yields through a breeding and geneties program in Arizona. Reproduction and seed formation in guayule results from facultative apomixis with estimated occurrence between 85 and 95%. The degree of environmental and genetic influences on traits related to yield is unknown. Four guayule lines propagated both from cuttings and from seeds were compared to estimate the environmental influence on yield components. Yields were also examined on plants regenerated after harvest by clipping plants above ground level. The plants' ability to regenerate after a clipping harvest is dependent on both environmental and genetic influences. The yields were compared to unclipped plants of the same line.
T.E. Thompson, L.J. Grauke and J.B. Storey
L.J. Grauke, T.E. Thompson, Philip Forsline and Kim Hummer
Core subsets have been formed in several clonally propagated crops; for pear (Pyrus), strawberry (Fragaria), mint (Mentha), currant (Ribes), blackberry (Rubus), blueberry (Vaccinium), apple (Malus), and pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Criteria for selecting entries into each core varies, as does the use each core receives. Core subsets have been selected for each of the major collections maintained at NCGR-Corvallis (pear, strawberry, mint, currant, blackberry, and blueberry). In general, core subsets include 10% of the full collection. Entries were selected on the basis of horticultural characteristics and species representation. Management of the collection is facilitated by recognition of core entries, which are frequently distributed. The 2500 accessions of the Malus collection are represented in a core subset of 200 accessions. Of those, 100 represent the 35 known species, while 100 accessions were selected from elite clones on the basis of horticultural characteristics. The core has been successfully used to find a superior virus indicator. Entries have been propagated in test orchards in five states. The core strategy was used to compare the pecan cultivar collection to seedlings from native populations throughout the species range. The analysis revealed gaps in the ex situ collection, and may have implications for in situ conservation. A core subset (26 cultivars) was selected by stratified sampling within the geographic regions to mirror the allele frequency of the cultivar collection, consciously including extreme expressions of each horticultural trait evaluated. The availability of the diverse subset has effected management and distribution.
L.J. Grauke, T.E. Thompson, E.F. Young Jr. and H.D. Petersen
The Munsell color system was used to study kernel color differences between four pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars (`Cheyenne', `Choctaw', `Western', and `Wichita') grown at four locations (Tulare, Calif., and Brownwood, Crystal City, and El Paso, Texas) during two seasons (1987 and 1988) and stored under different temperatures (20 to 24 °C and -5 °C). Kernel color changed over time from yellow to red hues and from lighter to darker values, but changed very little in chroma. Initial ratings of each color attribute by cultivar were positively correlated with patterns of change in that attribute over time. Kernels collected in 1987 were more yellow and had greater color saturation than kernels collected in 1988. `Cheyenne' kernels were the most yellow of the cultivars tested and `Wichita' kernels were the most red. `Cheyenne' kernels were lighter than those of any other cultivar. Kernels frozen 6 or 12 months were more red in hue than unfrozen kernels, but could not be distinguished on the basis of value (lightness). Kernels frozen 12 months had reduced chroma compared to those frozen 6 months or unfrozen. Shelled kernels of `Wichita' changed hue more in storage than kernels of other cultivars. Shelled kernels held at 20 to 24 °C became darker and developed red coloration quicker than unshelled pecans. Variation in hue and value accounted for the majority of color difference between cultivars. Changes in hue accounted for the majority of color change over time. Differences among cultivars in value (lightness) were consistent over time.