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Southernpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a popular home garden, fresh-market, and processing vegetable in the southeastern United States. Processing schedules are normally controlled by planting the same variety at different dates. Difference in genetic maturity would allow growers to stagger harvest dates by planting different maturity peas on the same day and allow genotype to alter harvest dates. This procedure would allow growers to better utilize available soil moisture and optimum planting dates. Ten southernpea varieties and breeding lines representing early, medium, and late maturity were planted in Kibler, Ark., during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Five different planting dates were used. Flowering dates and days to maturity were recorded and plots were harvested for yield. Results indicate that relative days to maturity can be significantly shortened or lengthened by the time of planting. Varieties planted in early June or early August took longer to mature then when they were planted in late June or early July.

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Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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Authors: and

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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Abstract

The mutant trait glabrous seedstalk was observed in carrot (Daucus carota L.) inbred W93 and, in crosses with pubescent inbred MSU 1558, was found to be controlled by a single recessive gene, gls. Cytoplasmic effects on the expression of the character were not detected. Glabrous seedstalk has practical application as a genetic marker to detect outcrosses in hybrid carrot seed production fields.

Open Access

Abstract

The role of phenolic content and phenolase activity in the postharvest discoloration of broken snap bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was studied by measuring their levels in broken pods which discolored in 24 hours and in broken pods in which discoloration was inhibited by CO2. Elevated CO2 atmospheres (30%) inhibited the increase in phenolics content but did not affect phenolase activity. In addition, phenolic content, peroxidase, and phenolase activities were determined in 2 genotypes which discolor slightly (‘Blue Crop’ and ‘NCX8005’) and two which discolor severely (‘Provider’ and ‘GP72-122’). Again, discoloration was associated with increased levels of phenolic substances after injury regardless of phenolase and peroxidase activities. Systems which inhibit production of phenolics in response to injury reduce the problem of discoloration.

Open Access

Abstract

In field studies, appearance of foliar symptoms in yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L., cv Sundance) provided a better indication of time of watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2) inoculation than appearance of symptoms in fruit. Although the longest period of time between inoculation and foliar symptom appearance occurred with the last inoculation date (25 Sept.), differences in this period did not differ statistically among inoculation dates. Dates of fruit symptom appearance were more variable and were more related to plant developmental stage than to time of inoculation. The length of disease-free fruiting period and the number of disease-free fruit were reduced severely for plants receiving one of the first four weekly WMV-2 inoculations. Subsequent inoculations failed to reduce squash yield significantly.

Open Access

Southern peas for the processing market are an important crop for producers in South Texas, but little testing of new varieties or breeding lines has been carried out. Grower field trials during three different years and an on station trial provided an opportunity to evaluate >30 different pea cultivars or breeding lines. Cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for earliness, maturity, yield, and performance in high-pH soils. Yields varied significantly each season, with Arkansas Blackeye # 1 providing consistently high yields in the three grower trials. Both Arkansas 87-435-68 and Texas Pinkeye produced significantly higher yields in the high soil pH trial at Weslaco. Yields for Arkansas 87-435-68 and Texas Pinkeye in the Weslaco trial were 1428 and 1231 lb of dry peas per acre, respectively.

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Southernpea (cowpea), Vigna ungiculata L. Walp, is an important processing and fresh-market vegetable in the southern United States. While many of the newer varieties are early maturing, there is still a need for late-maturing, high-yielding varieties. Arkansas 92-552 fills this niche. It is a bush plant that produces silver pods in the upper portion of large plants that are free of basal runners. The seed are medium size with a bright pink eye. Maturity is 5 to 7 days later than `Coronet' under Arkansas conditions. The variety processes well and canned peas have been rated equal to `Coronet' by consumers panels. The yield potential is high and it has produced higher yield than `Coronet' in replicated trials in Arkansas. 92-552 is also resistant to rootknot nematode.

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Interest in the health benefits of vegetables prompted an investigation of the levels of carotenoids in commercial varieties and UA breeding lines of spinach. Plant carotenoids perform a critical function as antioxidants, providing protection against a variety of reactive oxygen species generated primarily during photosynthesis. When ingested by humans, these compounds maintain their antioxidant activities and are receiving considerable attention in relation to multiple health benefits, including cancer prevention. While the best-known and most-studied carotenoid is beta-carotene, other carotenoids are now receiving attention due to their higher antioxidant activity compared to beta-carotene. Most dark-green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and kale, are relatively high in carotenoids, especially lutein. In this study, significant differences in average content of both lutein and beta-carotene were found between genetic lines of spinach. Some lines exhibited considerable variation between plants, while others were highly uniform. There was a very high correlation (r 2 = 0.96) between lutein content and betacarotene content. The significant difference between spinach lines suggests that improvement of general carotenoid antioxidants and lutein could be obtained through a breeding program.

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