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  • Author or Editor: T. M. Thomas x
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As limitations on water used by container nurseries become commonplace, nurseries will have to improve irrigation management. Several ways to conserve water and improve on the management of irrigation water applied to container plants are discussed in this review. They include 1) uniform application, 2) proper scheduling of irrigation water, 3) substrate amendments that retain water, 4) reducing heat load or evaporative loss from containers, and 5) recycling runoff water.

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Dyssodia pentacheta, a low growing perennial Texas wild flower with potential for use in low maitenance landscapes, was propagated in vitro and with cuttings under a mist system. Over 80% of both semihardwood terminal cutting from stock plants and in vitro grown nodal segments, dipped in 0, 3, 10, or 30 M-3 IBA, formed roots after 4 weeks under an intermittent mist system. A 300 M-3 IBA basal dip was lethal to the cuttings. Dyssodia produced significantly more shoots per nodal explant in vitro on semisolid (2 g l-1 Gelrite) WPM with 1-10 M-6 BA than combinations of BA and 0.5 M-6 NAA. Shoots were successfully subcultured and grown for two passes on semisolid growth regulator free medium. When maintaining Dyssodia in vitro on WPM, void of plant growth regulators, 1% sucrose promoted shoot growth and suppressed phenolic production better than 2% sucrose.

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Dyssodia pentacheta, a prostrate-growing perennial Texas wildflower with potential for use in low-maintenance landscapes, was propagated in vitro and by stem cuttings under mist. Optimum rooting for IBA-treated semihardwood terminal stem cuttings (3 to 30 mm IBA) and in vitro-grown nodal segments (30 to 100 mm IBA) occurred after 4 weeks under an intermittent mist system. A 300-mm IBA basal dip was lethal to macroand microcuttings. In vitro, D. pentacheta produced more shoots per nodal explant on Woody Plant Medium (2 g Gelrite/liter) with 1 to 10 μ m BA than with combinations of BA and 0.5 μm NAA. After shoot proliferation, the shoots were subculture twice and grown on growth regulator-free medium. When maintaining D. pentacheta in vitro on media devoid of plant growth regulators, 1% sucrose was more effective than 2% for promoting shoot growth and suppressing apparent production of phenolics. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA); 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala, is a primary limitation to european hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivation in eastern North America. American hazelnut (Corylus americana) is the endemic host of A. anomala and, despite its tiny, thick-shelled nuts, is a potentially valuable source of EFB resistance and climatic adaptation. Interspecific hybrids (Corylus americana × C. avellana) have been explored for nearly a century as a means to combine EFB resistance with wider adaptability and larger nuts. Although significant progress was made in the past, the genetic diversity of the starting material was limited and additional improvements are needed for expansion of hazelnut (Corylus sp.) production outside of Oregon, where 99% of the U.S. crop is currently produced. Our objective was to determine if C. americana can be a donor of EFB resistance. We crossed 29 diverse EFB-resistant C. americana accessions to EFB-susceptible C. avellana selections (31 total progenies) to produce 2031 F1 plants. In addition, new C. americana germplasm was procured from across the native range of the species. The new collection of 1335 plants from 122 seed lots represents 72 counties and 22 states. The interspecific hybrid progenies and a subset of the American collection (616 trees from 62 seed lots) were field planted and evaluated for EFB response following field inoculations and natural disease spread over seven growing seasons. EFB was rated on a scale of 0 (no EFB) to 5 (all stems containing cankers). Results showed that progeny means of the interspecific hybrids ranged from 0.96 to 4.72. Fourteen of the 31 progenies were composed of at least one-third EFB-free or highly tolerant offspring (i.e., ratings 0–2), transmitting a significant level of resistance/tolerance. Several corresponding C. americana accessions that imparted a greater degree of resistance to their hybrid offspring were also identified. In addition, results showed that 587 (95.3%) of the 616 C. americana plants evaluated remained completely free of EFB. These findings confirm reports that the species rarely expresses signs or symptoms of the disease and should be robustly studied and exploited in breeding.

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Commercialization of crops tolerant to application of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is a cause of major concern for sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) producers regarding potential negative impacts due to herbicide drift or sprayer contamination events. A field study was initiated in 2016 and repeated in 2017 to assess impacts of reduced rates of combinations of glyphosate with 2,4-D or dicamba on sweetpotato growth and production. Reduced rates of 1/10x, 1/33x, 1/66x, and 1/100x of a 1x rate of glyphosate at 1 lb/acre plus 2,4-D choline at 0.94 lb/acre and glyphosate at 1 lb/acre plus diglycolamine salt of dicamba at 0.5 lb/acre were applied to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at 10 or 30 days after transplanting. With respect to visual injury, in general glyphosate plus dicamba proved to be more injurious than glyphosate plus 2,4-D, especially within the lower rate range. In most cases injury was greater at the later application timing. In either case, typical hormonal herbicide symptomology was quite evident 35 days after application. With respect to U.S. No. 1 and total (U.S. No. 1, canner, and jumbo grade) sweetpotato yield, greatest negative impact was observed with herbicide application at the upper rate range, particularly the 1/10 and 1/33x rates, and at the later application timing regardless of herbicide applied.

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Abstract

‘Sweethaven’, ‘Newhaven’, and ‘Jayhaven’ are 3 new cultivars o f melting, yellowfleshed peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] distributed for public nursery sales as products of an ongoing, long-term breeding program in Michigan (Table 1).

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Eye-tracking equipment is now affordable and portable, making it a practical instrument for consumer research. Engineered to best analyze gaze on a plane (e.g., a retail shelf), both portable eye-tracking glasses and computer monitor–mounted hardware can play key roles in analyzing merchandise displays to better understand what consumers view. Researchers and practitioners can use that information to improve the sales efficacy of displays. Eye-tracking hardware was nearly exclusively used to investigate the reading process but can now be used for a broader range of study, namely in retail settings. This article presents an approach to using glasses eye tracker (GET) and light eye tracker (LET) eye-tracking hardware for applied consumer research in the field. We outline equipment use, study construction, data extraction as well as benefits and limitations of the technology collected from several pilot studies.

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Seventy-one amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), 93 sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), and 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to extend an initial genetic linkage map for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai]. The initial map was based on 151 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 30 and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A testcross population previously used for mapping of RAPD and ISSR markers was used in this study: {plant accession Griffin 14113 [C. lanatus var. citroide (L.H. Bailey) Mansf.] × the watermelon cultivar New Hampshire Midget (C. lanatus var. lanatus)} × PI 386015 [C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad.]. The linkage map contains 360 DNA markers distributed on 19 linkage groups, and covers a genetic distance of 1976 cM with an average distance of 5.8 cM between two markers. A genomic DNA clone representing 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC-) synthase gene, involved in ethylene biosynthesis, was also mapped. As in previous mapping studies for watermelon, a large number of AFLP and SRAP markers were skewed away from the 1:1 segregation ratio, and had to be excluded from the final mapping analysis. The stringent mapping criteria (JoinMap 3.0 mapping program) produced linkage groups with marker order consistent with those reported in previous mapping study for watermelon.

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Many researchers regard somatic embryogenesis as a system of choice for in vitro propagation of superior varieties of crops such as coffee, mango, datepalm, and rose. While there are advantages, commercialization has not been possible so far in coffee, mango, and rose. The work highlights some reasons for this and feasible alternatives. We have established somatic embryogenesis in four elite Indian arabica coffee genotypes. Plantlets (3500) of all the four varieties are now being field-evaluated. The cost of producing these propagules is 15 times the seedling cost at present. A major constraint is the long time (6 months) needed to reach the five-leaf stage in vitro prior to release for acclimatization. This period can be reduced to 2 months using exvitro development after the two leaf stage. There are many reports of somatic embryogenesis in mango. Results on establishing free-living plantlets have not been encouraging.We found a number of abnormalities in the shape of the somatic embryos in cv. Rumani. However, except for the “rod”-shaped ones (that lacked cotyledonary expansion), all embryos germinated satisfactorily (75% rooting).We have encouraging results in reducing the time required to generate suitable plantlets for field acclimatization and in standardizing the procedures for grafting. Our laboratory has developed methods for ex vitro germination of mature embryos in datepalm,which yield more numbers of free-living plantlets (50%–60%) in only 3 months with an average of four leaves per plant. This compared favorably with in vitro germination that takes 6 months and produces plantlets with one or two leaves only. A novel protocol for obtaining somatic embryogenesis in rose from petal derived calli was developed by us (Murali et al., 1996). The number of embryos induced was too low for commercial application. [Murali et al., 1996. Euphytica 91:271–275].

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Conservation tillage (CT) row crop production is currently not widely adopted in California. Recently, however, interest in evaluating the potential of CT systems to reduce production costs and improve soil quality is growing in many areas in the state. In 1997 and 1998, we evaluated four cover crop mulches (rye/vetch, triticale/vetch, Sava medic, and Sephi medic) in a CT-transplanted tomato system relative to the conventional winter fallow (CF) practice. In both years, yields were comparable to the CF under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches. Earthworm populations after 2 years of CT production were increased 2- to 5-fold under mulches relative to the CF system. Soil carbon was increased by 16% and 6% after 2 years of CT production under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches, respectively. Weed suppression under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch was comparable to the CF with herbicide system early in the season in both years but was maintained through harvest in only one season. Soil water storage (0-90 cm) was similar at the beginning of the tomato season in triticale/vetch, rye/vetch, and fallow plots but was higher under the mulches during much of the last 45 days of the 1998 season. Further refinement of CT practices in California's vegetable production regions is needed before wider adoption is likely.

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