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- Author or Editor: T. K. Howe x
Petunia (Petunia × hybrida) cultivars were evaluated for earliness of flowering, flower diameter and color, plant dimensions, plant habit, uniformity, overall appearance, lodging, floriferousness and sensitivity of flowers to spray damage during the spring and fall of 1991. Fifty-eight cultivars in the spring and 59 in the fall were grown in field beds under full sun. Spring: The range of time from sowing to the first flower was 54 to 73 days. Plant heights ranged from 15 to 40 cm. Red flowered types were the shortest, while blue and white types the tallest. Flower diameter ranged from 5.3 to 10.0 cm with grandiflora types 2.5 cm larger than multiflora types. Spray damage to flowers was absent in all blue and white colors as well as `Supercascade Red' and `Falcon Pink'. Fall: The range of time from sowing to flowering was 52 to 76 days. Plant heights were similar to the spring. Flower diameter ranged from 5.1 to 10.2 cm, with grandifloras 2.0 cm larger than multiflora types. Lodge resistance was related to plant height, which was strongly linked to flower color. Generally red flowered types lodged slightly if at all.
Cabbage cultivars and advanced breeding lines were evaluated in a full-bed mulch system with a population of 43,200 plants/ha during the winter seasons of 1988-89 and 1989-90. Yield and adaptability were assessed for 31 entries in 1988-89 and 30 entries in 1989-90. Highest yields in 1988-89 were produced by `Grand Slam' with 84.2 t/ha and an average head weight of 2.2 kg. Next highest yields were produced by `Blue Boy' (74.1 t/ha), `Rio Verde' (73.0), `Bravo' (70.5), `Ocala' (70.0), `Showboat' (70.0), `Olympic' (69.2), `Sure Vantage' (66.6) and `Grand Prize' (64.7). Heat tolerant cabbage entries `Summer Autumn', `Good Season', `Tropical Delight', `Spring Light', `Summer Summit' and `Summit' performed very poorly. Highest yields in 1989-90 were produced by XPH 5787 (77.1 t/ha), `Showboat' (76.2), 57-340 (74.0), `Blue Boy' (72.4), `Bravo' (71.1), `Tempo' (70.6), XPH 5788 (66.1) and `Fortuna' (65.9). Highest yields among the fifteen cultivars tested both seasons were produced by `Blue Boy' (73.3 t/ha), `Showboat' (73.1) and `Bravo' (70.7).
Pansy cultivars were evaluated for number of days to flower, flower size, flower color, plant habit, plant dimensions, weather tolerance, floriferousness, uniformity, and overall appearance during the winters of 1994–95 and 1995–96. In 1994–95, the number of days from sowing of seed to first flower among 122 cultigens ranged from 68 days for `Allegro Beaconsfield' to 94 days for `Springtime New Red'. Flower diameter ranged from 4.1 cm for `Allegro Pure Yellow' to 6.5 cm for `Bingo Yellow with Blotch'. Plant height after 114 to 122 days from seed sowing ranged from 11.4 cm for `Allegro Pure Orange' to 19.7 cm for `Fama See-Me'. Subjective ratings showed few differences among the cultigens in plant uniformity and floriferousness, but differences with respect to overall appearance. In 1995–96, the number of days from seed sowing to first flower for 113 cultigens ranged from 75 days for `Rally Light Blue with Blotch' to 97 days for `Happy Face White'. Flower diameter ranged from 4.8 cm for `Sprite Beaconsfield' and `Sprite Yellow' to 7.5 cm for `Bingo Yellow with Blotch'. Plant height at 140 to 143 days after seed sowing ranged from 12.4 cm for `Maxim Chiffon' to 26.5 cm for `Universal Plus White'. Subjective ratings showed no differences among the cultigens in plant uniformity or overall appearance and few differences in floriferousness or flower display.
Nineteen vinca (Catharanthus roseus) cultivars were evaluated for days to flower, flower diameter, flower color, plant dimensions, and appearance during the summer and fall of 1993. Summer: Days from sowing to flower ranged from 58 days for `Pretty in Pink' to 64 days for `Pretty in Rose'. Flower diameter ranged from 4.3 to 5.8 cm for `Orchid Cooler' and `Parasol', respectively. `Parasol' produced the largest flower. The `Carpet' entries (creeping types) were shorter than all others. Appearance ratings were similar among all entries at 85 and 109 days after sowing. Fall: Days from sowing to flower ranged from 51 days for `Grape Cooler' to 58 days for `Tropicana Rose'. Flower diameter ranged from 4.3 to 5.1 cm for `Orchid Cooler' and `Parasol', respectively. `Peppermint Cooler', `Grape Cooler' and `Orchid Cooler' were the only entries with significantly smaller flower size than `Parasol'. Appearance ratings at 109 and 141 days after sowing were similar for all entries, however at 166 days `Dawn Carpet' and `Pink Carpet' had significantly lower ratings than 15 other entries due to frost damage.
Fibrous-rooted begonia cultivars were evaluated for days to flower, flower size, flower color, leaf characteristics, plant dimensions and appearance during two seasons, Spring and Fall 1994. In spring, days from sowing to first flower among 62 cultivars ranged from 49 days for `Ambassador Coral', `Ambassador Soft Pink', `Prelude Coral' and `Varsity Rose' to 89 days for `Olympia Red'. Flower diameter ranged from 2.8 cm for `Gin' to 5.5 cm for `Lotto Pink'. At 126 days after sowing, plant height ranged from 16.5 cm for `Ambassador White' to 31.1 cm for `Encore Light Pink'. Subjective ratings showed cultivars were different with respect to floriferousness. In fall, days from sowing to first flower among 69 cultivars ranged from 76 days for `Atlanta White', `Atlanta Pink' and `Victory White' to 114 days for `Olympia Red'. Flower diameter ranged from 2.7 cm for `Roxy White' to 6.9 cm for `Lotto Pink'. Plant height at 118 days after sowing ranged from 5.1 cm for `Ambassador White' and `Lotto Scarlet' to 19.7 cm for `All Round Dark Rose/Dark Leaved'. Subjective ratings showed differences among the cultivars in appearance of foliage and floriferousness.
The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO2 in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO2-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO2 included: ‘Ace’, ‘Bonanza’, ‘Heinz 1350’, ‘Tarquinia Tondino’, and ‘VF 145-B 7879’. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO2 included: ‘Bellarina’, ‘Chico IIP, ‘Flora-Dade’, ‘Red Cherry Large’, ‘SubArctic Delight’, and ‘Vetomold’.
Thirty-nine cultivars of marigold (Tagetes spp.) were exposed to sulfur dioxide to determine their relative sensitivity. Flowering plants were fumigated at 1 ppm SO2 for 4 hours or at 2 ppm SO2 for 2 hours. The average foliar injury for all leaves on individual plants ranged from 42.3% for ‘Crackerjack Mix’ at 2 ppm SO2 to 0.0% for ‘Cupid Yellow’ at 1 ppm SO2. Foliar necrosis appeared as a gray to white marginal and/or interveinal scorch 1 day after exposure. There was a tendency for interveinal necrosis to be near the midvein. The extra-floral nectaries which line the leaf margins of marigold were scorched in 15 of the 39 cultivars. This injury may be of diagnostic value. Sepals were very sensitive to SO2. Sepal injury appeared as a pinpoint scorch and as tip burn, and was apparent in some cultivars when no foliar injury occurred.